Identification de défauts dans les convertisseurs statiques DC/DC à composants SiC destinés aux applications pile à combustible

Abstract : The use of power converters in fuel cell electrical transport applications drives research to study the problem of their reliability, since a fault in these circuits could cause a breakdown or a malfunction that affects the entire system of the powertrain. The converter under consideration is a six-phase interleaved boost converter operating in unidirectional power flow in continuous conduction mode with a 100 kHz switching frequency and a high voltage gain (equal to 5). It allows, with the choice of passive elements, a low input current ripple and interfaces a 21kW fuel cell (70V, 300A) and a resistive load of 350V (value close to the networks with batteries Li-ion). These systems contain semiconductor power switches which are the most fragile components and are subject to severe electrical and thermal stresses for automotive applications. The use of silicon carbide technology for these semiconductor components accompanies a real industrial need for development of a miniaturized system and integrates the concerns of manufacturers of electric vehicles around the implementation of innovative, embedded and reliable technologies. Indeed, this technology of semiconductor components is certainly a serious candidate to optimize the energy efficiency and power integration of converters, for fuel cells, more robust against constraints of the transport use. In my thesis work, switch short-circuit and switch open-circuit faults of silicon carbide power switches are considered to satisfy the continuity of service and to cancel the influence of this degradation on both the fuel cell source and the charge. The proposed detection methods are simple and non-intrusive. They use the drain to source voltage VDS of the power switch as a fault indicator to judge the presence or not of a short-circuit or an open-circuit switch fault. The detection principle consists in comparing the VDS voltage with a configurable threshold voltage (to fix it for the silicon carbide component). Once the faulty inductive phase is identified, a fault management process by the control is implemented. In the case of switch short-circuit fault, firstly a control strategy is applied to soften the break of current of the faulty inductive phase. After faulty phase isolation using specific switches that support breaking of the high-current circuit (example: high-speed fuse) and a reconfiguration by the control of the power converter (transition from 6 to 6-i phases, with i number of faults). In the case of switch open-circuit fault, which automatically isolates the defective phase, if any preventive action is planned the continuity of service is ensured but to more current ripple on the arms of the DC/DC converter. To avoid this effect, reconfiguration by the command is necessary.
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Rabeb Yahyaoui. Identification de défauts dans les convertisseurs statiques DC/DC à composants SiC destinés aux applications pile à combustible. Energie électrique. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCD036⟩. ⟨tel-02143932⟩

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