Super-réseaux GeTe/Sb2Te3 pour les mémoires iPCM : croissance PVD par épitaxie van der Waals et étude de leur structure

Abstract : In order to satisfy the demand for more and more efficient memory in computer systems, new technologies have been developed. Among the latter resistive phase-change memories (PCM) exhibit capacities and sufficient maturity to achieve the so-called new SCM (for Storage Class Memory) devices as evidenced by the recent commercialization of Optane products by INTEL®. Nevertheless, PCM still require strong electrical consumption limiting their performance. Integration of (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)m superlattices in so-called iPCM (for interfacial Phase Change Memory) was shown to permit a significant decrease in programming currents. However, the switching mechanism of this memory and the structure of the material in its two resistance states are still under debate. The aim of this thesis is therefore to deposit crystalline (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)m (m=1,2,4 et 8) superlattices, to determine their structure and to integrate them into memory devices. GeTe and Sb2Te3 materials are alternately deposited by means of sputtering in an industrial deposition tool to perform van der Waals epitaxy of these superlattices. Stoichiometric superlattices with the desired periodicity and with an orientation of the (0 0 l) crystalline planes parallel to the surface of the substrate are obtained by innovative co-sputtering of Sb2Te3 and Te targets during Sb2Te3 deposition. A description of the local atomic order of superlattices is then carried out by studying HAADF-STEM images coupled to simulations. Intermixing between GeTe and Sb2Te3 deposited layers is thus revealed, leading to the local formation of rhombohedral GexSbyTez. Quantitative measurements of the Ge/Sb atomic plans occupation in further confirm the phenomenon. A long-range order structural model of superlattices by means of random stacking of crystalline blocks allows the simulation of experimental diffraction curves. Finally, the first integrations of (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)m (with m=1,2,4 et 8) superlattices in devices demonstrate a programming current up to 4 times lower than a PCM reference with an endurance exceeding 10 millions cycles.
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Philippe Kowalczyk. Super-réseaux GeTe/Sb2Te3 pour les mémoires iPCM : croissance PVD par épitaxie van der Waals et étude de leur structure. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAT109⟩. ⟨tel-02143111⟩

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