Modeling and numerical simulation of the deformation and the rupture of the plaque of atherosclerosis in the arteries.

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the blood flow in stenosed arteries due to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a complex vascular disease characterized by the build up of a plaque leading to the narrowing of the artery. It is responsible for heart attacks and strokes. Regardless of the many risk factors that have been identified- cholesterol and lipids, pressure, unhealthy diet and obesity- only mechanical and hemodynamic factors can give a precise cause of this disease. In the first part of the thesis, we introduce the three dimensional mathematical model describing the blood-wall setting. The model consists of coupling the dynamics of the blood flow given by the Navier-Stokes equations formulated in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework with the elastodynamic equations describing the elasticity of the arterial wall considered as a hyperelastic material modeled by the non-linear Saint Venant-Kirchhoff model as a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system. Theoretically, we prove local in time existence and uniqueness of solution for this system when the fluid is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian homogeneous fluid and the structure is described by the quasi-incompressible non-linear Saint Venant-Kirchhoff model. Results are established relying on the key tool; the fixed point theorem. The second part is devoted for the numerical analysis of the FSI model. The blood is considered to be a non-Newtonian fluid whose behavior and rheological properties are described by Carreau model, while the arterial wall is a homogeneous incompressible material described by the quasi-static elastodynamic equations. Simulations are performed in the two dimensional space R^2 using the finite element method (FEM) software FreeFem++. We focus on investigating the pattern of the viscosity, the speed and the maximum shear stress. Further, we aim to locate the recirculation zones which are formed as a consequence of the existence of the stenosis. Based on these results we proceed to detect the solidification zone where the blood transits from liquid state to a jelly-like material. Next, we specify the solidified blood to be a linear elastic material that obeys Hooke's law and which is subjected to an external surface force representing the stress exerted by the blood on the solidification zone. Numerical results concerning the solidified blood are obtained by solving the linear elasticity equations using FreeFem++. Mainly, we analyze the deformation of this zone as well as the wall shear stress. These analyzed results will allow us to give our hypothesis to derive a rupture model.
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Fatima Abbas. Modeling and numerical simulation of the deformation and the rupture of the plaque of atherosclerosis in the arteries.. Other [q-bio.OT]. Normandie Université; Université libanaise, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMLH05⟩. ⟨tel-02143107⟩

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