Normal impact of liquid droplets on smooth solid surfaces

Abstract : Under the framework of the LabEx Multi-Scale Modelling and Experimentation of Materials for Sustainable Construction, of Université Paris-Est Marne-La-Vallée, the present PhD thesis aims at modelling and characterizing micro-material designed by impact of molten ceramic droplets. The applications of thin coating materials are surface treatments for sustainable construction such as anti-corrosion, heat barrier, glass treatment or mechanical reinforcement of specific structures.In particular, we focus on the physics behind the liquid droplets' dynamics (the contact area and the contact time between the droplet and surface) by conducting a series of small scale multiphase flow numerical simulations with home-made code Thetis. All simulations are axisymmetric. We have considered variations of initial impact conditions, and studied the influence of inertial, capillary and viscous forces on the droplets' dynamics, especially the maximum spreading diameter, spreading time and the contact time, on solid surfaces. The code is based on Volume-Of-Fluid techniques and introduces an auxiliary smooth function to estimate the local curvature and the normal to the interface. The major reference liquid adopted are the water and the molten ceramic, the water is chosen to validate our code against available experiments at the beginning. The molten ceramic is adopted as it is widely used in thermal spray to built thermal and chemical barriers (anti-oxidant layers) as well as mechanical reinforcements on specific samples. We focus on the cases in which the surfaces are hydrophobic, even if hydrophilic cases are also considered in validation configurations for the sake of generality. Meanwhile, by introducing an energy calculation part in the code, a detailed energetic analysis of the droplet after impact is performed in both the spreading and retraction stage to have a deep understanding of the dynamics inside the droplet.We find the jetting time is inversely proportional to the impact velocity, independent of the contact angle in the early spreading. A new scaling between maximum spreading and spreading time is observed, and agrees well with experimental results. Further, we introduce this scaling into the model based on energy conservation to predict the maximum spreading factor, which provides better prediction on maximum spreading factor than existing literature references. Also a scaling of contact time is proposed in terms of Ohnesorge number and Reynolds number
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Yang Xu. Normal impact of liquid droplets on smooth solid surfaces. Other. Université Paris-Est, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1099⟩. ⟨tel-02143095⟩

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