Relation morphologie/réactivité des substrats lignocellulosiques : impact du prétraitement par explosion à la vapeur

Abstract : In a context of energy transition and climate change challenge, the production of second generation ethanol seems to be a very promising way to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. There are 3 key steps for producing this new biofuel: pretreatment to decompose the lignocellulosic biomass and to make cellulose more accessible to enzyme attacks, enzymatic hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars and fermentation to convert these sugars into ethanol. Currently, the pretreatment considered to be the most efficient, and mainly retained for industrialization, is the steam explosion pretreatment. However, some aspects such as the physicochemical effects induced by pretreatment and their impacts on the characteristics of pretreated biomass remain misunderstood.Schematically, the steam explosion pretreatment can be separated into two stages: the first is similar to an acid cooking carried out at 150-200°C during 5-30 min and allows mainly the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, while the second is an explosive release which allows a mechanical bursting of the substrate potentially making the cellulose more reactive to enzymatic hydrolysis. As a whole, the effects of this type of pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are now well known, but the understanding of the different physicochemical phenomena occurring within it remains limited. Indeed, decoupling the cooking stage and the expansion stage is complicated because the reactor temperature (which mainly impacts the cooking reactions) is directly related to its pressure (which mainly impacts the explosive release) by the phase thermodynamics.This thesis work aims to better understand all the physicochemical phenomena occurring during a steam explosion pretreatment, based in particular on experimental discrimination of chemical phenomena (depolymerization reactions) and physical phenomena (explosive release) as well as on a multi-technical and multi-scale characterization of the lignocellulosic biomass obtained after this type of pretreatment. The objective is also to understand what are the main characteristics of biomass that explain the differences in reactivity observed during the enzymatic hydrolysis step and to explain the impact of the steam explosion pretreatment on the physicochemical properties and therefore the reactivity.
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Charlotte Loustau Cazalet. Relation morphologie/réactivité des substrats lignocellulosiques : impact du prétraitement par explosion à la vapeur. Génie des procédés. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI099⟩. ⟨tel-02143068⟩

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