Monitoring of the mechanical properties of the crust beneath Japan from continuous data of the Hi-net network

Abstract : The Japanese High Sensitivity Seismograph Network (Hi-net) contains more than 1000 permanent stations, which provide large continuous data sets throughout Japan. In the framework of an agreement with NIED, we benefit from both short period and tilt meters data downhole recordings to analyze the seismic velocity variations, thus to follow the mechanical evolution of the crust in different time scales with a temporal re- solution from monthly to daily in different period ranges. The short period results help us better understanding the environmental seismology on the subsurface processes under the impacts of some surrounding environmental forcing such as hydrology, thermoelas- ticity, and some direct loading effects. The results from long periods show different co- and postseismic responses with depth. This is a supplementary and direct method to disclose the stress/strain field at depth improving the perception of the mechanism of an earthquake. This thesis mainly consists of the following three parts.The first part is devoted to the theoretical demonstration of the relationship between the Green’s function and cross-correlations. The numerical simulation in Hokkaido also verifies the establishment of the in-between connection.The second part is about the analysis of the transient changes of seismic wave velo- city in the crust caused by environmental perturbations. The impacts of environmental seasonal disturbances to crustal deformation are usually tracked and discussed based on geodetic observations. Recently, ambient seismic noise-based monitoring provides new insights into the continuous deformation in the crust as revealed by the temporal seismic velocity changes. In this study, we identify the different environmental factors in charge of the local seasonal effects and show how better understanding these environmentally induced crustal perturbations improves the observations of tectonic-induced seismic pro- perty changes.The last part is to study the mechanical response of the crust to large earthquakes.Noise-based seismic velocity monitoring can directly probe the mechanical state of the crust at depth continuously in time. In this work, we study the response of the crust to the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. we employ here for the first time the very dense network of Hi-net tilt meters as long period (8 – 50 s) seismometers for the noise-based monitoring to sample the crust below 5 km depth. Spatio-temporal evolution of seismic velocity changes in different period bands reveals depth-dependent seismic response. The result could have implications of both nonelastic response of the crust to large strain changes or a complex response of crustal seismic velocities to transient fluid flow.This thesis is in the context of a more general collaboration between ISTerre- Universit Grenoble Aples, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology aiming at developing tools for monitoring in natural and industrial contexts.
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Qing-Yu Wang. Monitoring of the mechanical properties of the crust beneath Japan from continuous data of the Hi-net network. Applied geology. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAU047⟩. ⟨tel-02143062⟩

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