Pollution de l'air extérieur et intérieur à Dakar (Sénégal) : caractérisation de la pollution, impact toxicologique et évaluation épidémiologique des effets sanitaires

Abstract : Air pollution is nowadays a major societal challenge, as much for its harmful consequences on human health as on the environment. The general objective of this work was to determine the level of Dakar air pollution, outdoor and indoor, and to assess its health impact in the urban population. Fine particles (PM₂.₅) and a coarser fraction (PM>₂.₅) sampled at an urban site in Dakar (HLM), characterized by high road traffic emissions, were compared with particles sampled at a rural area, Toubab Dialaw located about 40 km from Dakar. The physicochemical characteristics of samples revealed that PMs differ for their physical (surface area) and chemical properties (in terms of CHN, metals, ions, paraffins, VOCs and PAHs) that were 65 to 75 % higher in urban samples. In accordance with the different sources and different physical and chemical properties, the inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and the oxidative damage (total carbonylated proteins and 8-OHdG) were found higher in bronchial BEAS-2B cells exposed to urban PMs. The air quality measurement campaign showed that the bus interior was more polluted with PM₁₀, CO, CO₂ and NO than the market and the urban and rural indoor sites. The comparison of air quality between indoor and outdoor sites revealed that, particularly in urban areas, indoor air quality may be worse than the corresponding outdoor one. Monitoring individual exposure to pollutants showed that housewives in urban and rural sites were more exposed than professionals to air pollution, confirming previous observations of potential higher individual exposure level to pollutants in indoor environment. However, exposure level of traders and bus drivers that would result from the exhaust of traffic with often old, poorly maintained and uncontrolled vehicles has to be taken into consideration due the higher levels of gaseous pollutants here reported.
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Awa Ndong. Pollution de l'air extérieur et intérieur à Dakar (Sénégal) : caractérisation de la pollution, impact toxicologique et évaluation épidémiologique des effets sanitaires. Toxicologie. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale; Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. Département de médecine et de pharmacie, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019DUNK0510⟩. ⟨tel-02142594⟩

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