Isolement et caractérisation de saponosides extraits de deux plantes médicinales : Cyclamen africanum, Zygophyllum cornutum et évalution de leur activité anti-inflammatoire

Abstract : The appearance of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure and spread of infections mutagenic virus type can be linked to the quality and lifestyle that we lead today. Indeed, several studies on the factors triggering these so-called "morbid" long-or short-term illnesses are related to stress and quality of food consumed, whether of plant and animal origin. These diseases are becoming a common occurrence, they affect different races and all classes of society. According ethnobotanical research, naturally occurring substances, allowed civilizations to survive deadly diseases. For example, we thus find references to periods of malarial fever in China and one of the symptoms of this disease in the "Huangdi Neijiang" The Canon of Medicine dating from around the first century BC, more than 2000 years, which relates to the use of herbal medicines to relieve fevers (Desgrouas et al., 2014).Around 186 BC appears, in some parts of China, the use in herbal tea, Qing hao su, later known as artemisinin in the West and extracted from a medicinal plant used as antipyretic called "Qing hao" Artemisia annua or annual wormwood. Artemisinin blocks an enzyme which enables the parasite to pump calcium and prevents it from developing. As of today the Artemisinin-based combination therapy in French Combination therapy of artemisinin and ACT acronym, is a therapy and tertiary prevention in cases of uncomplicated malaria.From this perspective our study adds to a long series of studies on medicinal plants and natural substances extracted. It aims to reveal new biomolecules, highlighting their biological activities through techniques of biotechnology on the one hand. Moreover, these investigations will develop natural resources that are characterized by endemic.To do this, our choice is focused on two endemic medicinal plants in Algeria Cyclamen africanum Boiss. & Reuter and Zygophyllum cornutum Coss. After an ethnobotanical research on traditional medicine in Northern Africa, which showed the effectiveness of these plants in minimal inflammatory problems among Aboriginal, we undertook biochemical pharmacological investigations.The latter allowed us to isolate, five compounds from the methanol extract of the roots of the species Cyclamen africanum Boiss. Reuter & two new oleanane triterpene saponins type, Afrocyclamin A and B (1, 2) and three triterpenoid saponins known lysikokianoside of (3), deglucocyclamin I (4) and its derivative dicrotalique acid (5) September and known from the methanol extract saponins from the whole plant of Zygophyllum cornutum Coss. these saponins are ursane type, type triterpenes are reported in this species for the first time and can be considered a chemotherapy marker Taxonomic (chemotype) of Zygophyllum kind. The structures were elucidated on the basis of the analysis of NMR spectra of the experience-1D and 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectrometry method negative ion FAB source. The biological activities of saponosidiques FR.1 and Fr.2 fractions were tested on lines of male and female rats of the Winstar rats to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity. The saponosidique fraction FR.1 Cyclamen africanum the 5 mg dose, showed a significant effect on inflammation caused by carrageenan, reducing edema and immune response, which resulted in the concentration of protein the inflammatory response (PRI) through their action on the pro-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, PGE2, TNF -α, iNOS). The fraction of Fr.2 saponosidique Zygophyllum dose 20 mg did not show a significant effect on inflammation in general.
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Soumeya Betina-Bencharif. Isolement et caractérisation de saponosides extraits de deux plantes médicinales : Cyclamen africanum, Zygophyllum cornutum et évalution de leur activité anti-inflammatoire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bourgogne; Université Mentouri-Constantine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014DIJOPE03⟩. ⟨tel-02142544⟩

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