Valorisation des composés phénoliques des tourteaux de colza et tournesol : du fractionnement des matières premières vers la synthèse de molécules multifonctionnelles

Abstract : Rapeseed and sunflower meals are highly abundant and protein-rich by-products mainly dedicated to animal feed. Besides, they also represent an interesting source of phenolic compounds with various bioactive and antioxidant properties, but widely untapped so far. In addition, the recovery processes of phenolic compounds are based on the use of solvents that generate effluents and may negatively affect the integrity of other meal constituents.The first part of this work was devoted to the development of new separation processes of rapeseed and sunflower meal phenolic fractions. After an appropriate milling of the meals, the dry fractionation by electrostatic sorting or air classification allows the recovery of proteins and phenolics enriched fractions. In both cases, the particle-size distribution of milled meals has been of paramount importance on process efficiency. Electrostatic sorting lead to the highest enrichments in proteins and phenolics (up to two times more than in starting meals) with recovery yields around 30% after recycling. This step was followed by the extraction of phenolics using green hydro-alcoholic mixtures based on ethanol as substitutes to methanol.In the second part, we investigated the enzymatic production of sinapic and caffeic acids from rapeseed and sunflower meals or their extracts. Three recombinant cinnamoyl esterases from A. niger exhibiting different activities and selectivities were tested. Owing to the presence of active endogenous enzymes, the hydrolysis of non-thermally treated meals has lead to a significant loss of phenolics. The issue was overcomed by performing hydrolysis on the corresponding phenolic extracts. However, in case of rapeseed extract, acyl transfer reactions were detrimental to sinapic acid formation and yield.Finally, in the last part, we synthesized mono- and di-esters of sinapic and caffeic acids with aliphatic α,ω-diols of increasing chain length, then we evaluated their antioxidant capacities in emulsion and in homogenous medium. A negative impact of the mono-esterification of the phenolic acid with the different aliphatic diols was observed in the heterogeneous media, implying the negative influence of the hydroxyl group at the end of the alkyl chain. Conversely, a “cut-off” effect was observed for the two di-esters series showing an improvement of the antioxidant capacity until an optimum was reached for a particular alkyl chain. Finally, all the esters showed lower antiradical capacities in the homogenous media compared to the corresponding starting phenolic acids.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 28, 2019 - 2:48:07 PM
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Oscar Laguna. Valorisation des composés phénoliques des tourteaux de colza et tournesol : du fractionnement des matières premières vers la synthèse de molécules multifonctionnelles. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTG007⟩. ⟨tel-02142245⟩



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