Évaluation environnementale stratégique de la mobilité quotidienne des personnes d’une aire urbaine : couplage entre Modèle Transport-Urbanisme et Analyse de Cycle de Vie

Abstract : By considering social, spatial and technological dimensions of people’s daily mobility, this thesis aims to develop an original environmental assessment method. In the recent years, passenger travel, as well as freight transportation, have grown significantly. Car is now the predominant mode of passenger transport and its impacts on environment, land-use planning, lifestyle and economy are well documented and at the centre of heated academic and political debates. The environmental assessment of peoples’ daily mobility requires an integrated approach to account for the transport system, but also the urban system in which it operates. In order to achieve this, this thesis introduces a method coupling two tools developed in two distinct scientific fields - land-use planning and environmental sciences: on the one hand, Land-Use and Transport Interaction models (LUTI) and, on the other hand, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods. Together, these tools can account for both technological processes involved in daily mobility, as well as interactions among stakeholders and territories. Throughout this thesis, the chosen evaluation framework is a strategic one, meaning that mobility is assessed through global and local environmental indicators on a large territory for medium and long-term alternatives. We describe the global context and the general approach in the first section of the thesis. The second part describes the SIMBAD-LCA method, which involves the integration of the LUTI model SIMBAD with a LCA method, in order to assess environmental impacts of the daily mobility of inhabitants in the Lyon urban area. The third part aims to illustrate the evaluation capability of the method in two steps. First, through a multicriteria assessment executed on disaggregated objects such as households and territories. Then, contrasted scenarios are built to assess broad and diversified alternatives. Finally, using the SIMBAD-LCA method, effects of technological, urban form and socio-economic parameters on environmental impacts associated with daily mobility are compared and discussed.
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Cyrille Francois. Évaluation environnementale stratégique de la mobilité quotidienne des personnes d’une aire urbaine : couplage entre Modèle Transport-Urbanisme et Analyse de Cycle de Vie. Géographie. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSET002⟩. ⟨tel-02141258⟩

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