Durabilité d'isolants à base de granulats végétaux

Abstract : The use of insulating materials based on plant aggregates is growing quickly, especially for the rehabilitation of old buildings, thus improving the comfort of residents. These materials have significant thermal, hydric and acoustic properties. However, their development is still limited by the lack of information on the evolution of their long-term performances. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the evolution of the functional properties of hemp concretes, by identifying the aging mechanisms when the material is exposed to different types of environments. For this aim, two hemp concretes formulated with one type of hemp and two binders with different chemical nature are retained. The approach of this study is multidisciplinary (chemical, physico-chemical, microbiological, microstructural, acoustic, thermal and mechanical) and multi-scale. The study of chemical and microstructural properties allows the understanding of the variations of functional properties. Firstly, the initial characterization of the both hemp concretes made it possible to demonstrate the absence of impact of the nature of the binder on the functional properties of the insulators, which can be partly explained by their similar microstructure. A weak mechanical resistance of the materials was also highlighted, related to the inhibition of the setting of the binders because of their interactions with the molecules extracted from the shiv. Secondly, hemp concretes and bulk shiv hemp are subjected to an accelerated aging by imposing cycles of humidification / drying during two years. The modifications of the material performances at different time scales are compared to reference samples stored at 50% of relative humidity and a constant controlled temperature. Under reference conditions, no variation in properties is observed. For accelerated aging, the variations of properties highlighted are induced by several parameters. In the case of bulk shiv, the action of microorganisms and the adsorption of water lead to a loss of mass and to the opening of porosities, leading to variations in acoustic properties. For hemp concretes, no fungal development is observed on the surface of the material. On the other hand, the action of microorganisms is clearly visible inside the plant aggregates, and additional mechanisms are identified: the hydration and carbonation reactions within the binder as well as the mineralization of the vegetal particles cause variations in thermal, acoustic and hydric properties by modifying the microstructure of hemp concretes.In conclusion, the absence of variations in the properties of hemp concretes in the reference conditions suggests that in a real building, their properties can be stable over time, the observed pathologies then being due to a faulty implementation. To go further, the results obtained during this work have to be validated by an in-situ study to be able to estimate the lifetime of these materials
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Guillaume Delannoy. Durabilité d'isolants à base de granulats végétaux. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1039⟩. ⟨tel-02141189⟩

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