La transmission colorectale du VIH par les cellules infectées du sperme et effet du sperme sur cette transmission

Abstract : Semen is the main vector of HIV dissemination. The colorectal mucosa exposed to semen infected cells during anal intercourse, in both men and women, represents the highest risk of infection among all sexual transmission routes. An increasing number of studies suggest that sexual transmission of HIV via infected cells present in the donor's genital secretions would be more effective than free viral particles. To date, the role and transmission mechanisms of infected sperm cells have been poorly studied. Moreover, the potential effect of seminal fluid (SF) on this transmission is poorly understood. In this context, my thesis work has demonstrated an active and rapid transmigration: (i) of blood leukocytes across the colorectal barrier, and an inhibitory effect of SF on this phenomenon, without altering the epithelial barrier. (ii) of seminal leucocytes. Flow cytometry analyzes have revealed both features and similarities in the protein equipment of seminal cells and their blood equivalents. This work provides new data on HIV transmission by infected sperm cells, and on the effect of semen on colorectal transmission. Demonstration of transmigration of seminal leukocytes suggests that these cells play a rôle in colorectal HIV transmission that needs to be considered in prevention strategies. The mechanisms involved and those responsible for the effect of SF remain to be elucidated and should eventually lead to new therapeutic targets.
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Julie Frouard. La transmission colorectale du VIH par les cellules infectées du sperme et effet du sperme sur cette transmission. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B068⟩. ⟨tel-02140619⟩

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