Influence de l'herbier de Zostera noltei sur la méiofaune benthique et la géochimie de sédiments intertidaux du Bassin d'Arcachon

Abstract : This thesis aimed to study the geochemical microenvironments created by Zostera noltei meadows and its root system in Arcachon Basin and to evaluate the effect of these microenvironments 1) on living benthic foraminifera ecology, a group of organisms present in large densities in sediment which impact on marine biogeochemical cycles remain poorly known and 2) on the chemical species and associated benthic fluxes. To fulfill these objectives, a multidisciplinary strategy was developed. The study of benthic foraminiferal ecology at centimeter scale, conducted in sediments with or without vegetation in February and July 2011, has shown the presence of three major species with specific metabolisms. Zostera noltei meadows seem to influence the densities and the living depth of heterotrophic (Ammonia tepida) and mixotrophic (Haynesina germanica) calcareous species, present in the sediment surface. The third species (Eggerella Scabra), which anaerobic metabolism is still to discover, is found throughout the sedimentary column and seems to prefer the organic matter coming from the degradation of the seagrass. In surface sediment, the contribution of these three species to aerobic remineralization was estimated at 7%, i.e. 5 times more than the maximum rates previously recorded in marine environments. The presence of the seagrass also influences geochemistry where enriched iron and depleted sulfide structures are observable in 2D thanks to DET-DGT gels developed here. Dissolved phosphorus depended on seagrass uptake and was highly concentrated only as scattered spots. A slice of sediment, taken face to face with the DET-DGT gel, was also conducted during this study aiming to map the solid phase and foraminiferal density. Despite this work is still in progress, methods such as X-ray microfluorescence and microtomography showed promising perspectives. New research pathways have been opened through technological developments and innovative approaches combining physiology, ecology, and geochemistry.
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Florian Cesbron. Influence de l'herbier de Zostera noltei sur la méiofaune benthique et la géochimie de sédiments intertidaux du Bassin d'Arcachon. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Angers, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ANGE0052⟩. ⟨tel-02140413⟩

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