Etude paramétrique et optimisation d'un processus de combustion de charges organiques

Abstract : The LPTI / CEA (Innovative Thermal Processes Laboratory) is developing a process for the incineration-vitrification of radioactive waste. The first step consists in the elimination of the organic charge (polymer) by incineration of the waste suspended in an oven. The objective of the work presented in this document is to study the operating parameters likely to modify the rate of degradation of the polymers, in order to optimize the incineration step.In this study, the degradation rate is measured by the mass loss of the compounds. A macro-thermobalance allowing to work with masses of polymer (polyethylene and neoprene) going from 5g to 65g was developed in order to carry out the parametric studies (mass of sample, temperature of the furnace, percentage of oxygen in gas, type of container) needed to evaluate the degradation rates of polyethylene and neoprene. These studies will then be extended to evaluate the kinetics of combustion of complex organic systems confined in different vectors.In parallel, two models were developped. The first describes the gas phase by CFD and the polymer by a "0D" model considering the homogeneous temperature in the sample, and the second is describing the two phases by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic). The objective of these models, solved in transient mode, is to calculate the rate of degradation of the polyethylene during its combustion in the macro-thermobalance to describe the behavior observed experimentally.Experimental and modeling results show the importance of flame position and heat transfer in the polymer on its rate of degradation. For the neoprene whose degradation produces carboneous residues (char), it is shown experimentally that the stage of oxidation of the char is, at the study temperatures (> 600 ° C), limited by the transfer of oxygen in the solid residues.
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Quentin Balme. Etude paramétrique et optimisation d'un processus de combustion de charges organiques. Génie civil nucléaire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI091⟩. ⟨tel-02140308⟩

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