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Etude fonctionnelle de la communauté microbienne de la peau par une approche métagénomique

Abstract : Skin is one of the largest human organs, with an average surface of 1.8 m2. At the interface between the human body and its external environment, skin is continually exposed to chemical and biological aggression and provides efficient protection of the human body. Its appearance is a good indicator of internal health, as skin reacts very rapidly to any change. Historically, skin microbiology was limited to the study of microorganisms isolated from skin pathologies, including those that provoke the pathological state and those that result from the pathology. However, the presence of skin microorganisms extends far beyond these pathological aspects, as non-pathological bacteria are detected everywhere on the skin, with up to 107 bacterial cells by cm2 in some areas. Skin is not a sterile human organ, but acts as an ecological niche for commensal microor- ganisms whose presence participates in protection against pathogens by preventing their colonization. Skin microbiology had been studied long before consid- ering the commensal skin bacteria, the majority of which could not be cultivated in vitro and the role of which was neglected until these new approaches, based on amplification and sequencing of DNA directly extracted from skin, were applied. Metagenomics revolutionized the study of microbiology in numerous environments where most bacteria are difficult to isolate. The first result of this approach was a more accurate estimation of microbial diversity, which had been underestimated by traditional approaches. However, interest in metagenomics exceeds a simple inventory of bacteria by providing information on their activity, function and interrelationship with other organisms.Our objective in this work realized in a CIFRE collaboration with Libragen company, was to study the functional profiles of the human skin microbiome with the application of metagenomic tools. This approach required first developing a method for the sampling and the dna extraction in order to overcome the constraints specific to this microbiome. Then, the sequencing data allowed characterizing the functional potential of the skin microorganisms in comparison to other environmental metagenome, and to find specificities of their local adaptations among three different skin sites. Applications of this work can be very important and one application tried in this thesis was the demonstration of the effect of several cutaneous cosmetic applications that modified the microflora at the taxonomic level and at the functional potential level.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 27, 2019 - 9:23:08 AM
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Alban Mathieu. Etude fonctionnelle de la communauté microbienne de la peau par une approche métagénomique. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ECDL0010⟩. ⟨tel-02140144⟩



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