Développement de catalyseurs à base de métaux de transition non nobles en remplacement du platine pour des réactions d'hydrogénation

Abstract : The use of noble metals in heterogeneous catalysis is limited by the scarcity of these metals, their cost and the supply difficulties due to the monopole of only two countries on the world market. The aim of this work consisted to study the association of platinum and cobalt in order to substitute partly Pt with Co while preserving the catalytic performances of the noble metal in hydrogenation. Various syntheses of 1%Pt- 5%Co supported bimetallic catalysts have been achieved and their performances have been compared with those of monometallic catalysts as well as (Pt + Co) mechanical mixtures for two hydrogenation’s reactions of industrial interest: the hydrogenation of acetonitrile and that of furfural. The physicochemical characterizations carried out (TEM, XPS …) and the model reactions (dehydrogenation of cyclohexane, hydrogenolysis of methylcyclopentane) studied have pointed out several results: - the presence of Pt increases the reducibility of Co for co-impregnated catalysts and mechanical mixtures leading to an enhancement of the catalytic performances in hydrogenation of acetonitrile or furfural; - the colloidal preparation favors the formation of PtCo alloy particles with a homogeneous composition, which are not very active for the reactions studied; - the redox route synthesis can accurately deposit Pt in contact with Co creating an improvement of the catalytic performances by a synergistic effect. Thus, in the hydrogenation of acetonitrile, the same activity was obtained by using a Pt-Co catalyst containing five times less noble metal’s content than the 1% Pt catalysts.
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Fabien Drault. Développement de catalyseurs à base de métaux de transition non nobles en remplacement du platine pour des réactions d'hydrogénation. Chimie inorganique. Université de Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018POIT2292⟩. ⟨tel-02139078⟩

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