Traitement d'eaux usées par adsorption sur des polymères de cyclodextrine et développement de capteurs chimiques à base de membranes de verres de chalcogénures destinées à la détection des ions Hg²⁺

Abstract : The aim of this work was to identify the emerging pollutants in the effluents of wastewater treatment plants as well as in the natural environment, and to propose a method of remediation and monitoring of these pollutants. In the first part of the thesis, we have identified the organic pollutants contained in the wastewater samples using (i) gas and/or liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry, (ii) static-headspace gas chromatography, and (iii) inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Different pollutants were found such as phthalates, drugs, cholesterol, and heavy metal traces. In order to trap these pollutants, various water soluble/insoluble cyclodextrin β-CD polymers have been synthesized and their adsorption capacities were evaluated. After the analysis of the effluent samples, we observed a decrease of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). This decrease was attributed to the adsorption of pollutant by CD polymers which have proven to be effective adsorbents. The second part of the thesis included two main sub-parts : (i) a synthesis and characterization part and (ii) an application part. In the first sub-part, chalcogenide glasses in the pseudo-ternary Agl-HgS-As₂S₃ system have been synthesized by adding silver iodide "Agl" to the quasi-binary HgS-As₂S₃ system. The vitreous domain and the macroscopic properties of glass samples were determined. Electrical conductivity of glasses was studied using both the complex impedance spectroscopy and resistivity measurements ; it was found that adding Agl to the quasi-binary HgS-As₂S₃ alloy causes an increase in the ionic conductivity. Structural studies, using various techniques as Raman spectroscopy, neutron scattering and high-energy X-ray diffraction, have been performed in order to decipher the relation between both structural and transport properties in these glasses. In the second sub-part, the obtained glasses in the ternary system were used as membranes in chemical sensors dedicated to mercury detection in aqueous solution. As a result, various sensors with different compositions were tested to determine their corresponding sensitivity, detection limit and selectivity coefficients in the presence of interfering ions.
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Sohayb Khaoulani. Traitement d'eaux usées par adsorption sur des polymères de cyclodextrine et développement de capteurs chimiques à base de membranes de verres de chalcogénures destinées à la détection des ions Hg²⁺. Polymères. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015DUNK0386⟩. ⟨tel-02137940⟩

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