Recherche et études de marqueurs précoces permettant de déterminer l'état de fraicheur de filets de poissons

Abstract : Freshness is a key parameter of fish quality. Current routine techniques to determine fish freshness are not applicable to all species and reflect a late stage of alteration. Thus, research on early indicators of fish freshness still represents a major and topical challenge in fishing industry. This PhD research project aimed to demonstrate that mitochondrial functions and integrity constitute early indicators of fish fillet freshness. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and play a central role in cell death mecanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondrial function and integrity in fish filet muscle cells were studied at different times of storage post mortem at 4°C. The species studied as a model was the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) (gilthead seabream fibroblast cell line (SAF-1) and fish fillets). Firstly, the structure of fish mitochondria was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Numerous mitochondrial structural alterations have been observed in fish fillet from 72 hours (D3) of storage at 4°C. These alterations were more pronounced at D4 and D6. Then, mitochondrial functionality was assessed with two approaches: mitochondrial respiration (oxygraphy) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨₘ) estimated with the fluorescent probe Rh123. From 96 hours of storage at 4°C (D4), these two parameters were significantly disrupted demonstrating the alteration of mitochondrial function and integrity. The results are in correlation with the mitochondrial structural alterations described by microscopy. In parallel, a method of mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation has been developed with a micro-volume fluorimeter, first using bacteria and then isolated mitochondria. This work demonstrated that the mitochondrial functionality study constitutes a reliable and early fish filet freshness indicator. Additional knowledge on cell mechanisms in post mortem condition has been brought. These results constitute the starting point for the development of a fish freshness assay kit and pave the way to research on others freshness and freeze-thawing indicators based on mitochondrial integrity and functionality.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 23, 2019 - 10:06:55 AM
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Jérôme Cléach. Recherche et études de marqueurs précoces permettant de déterminer l'état de fraicheur de filets de poissons. Biologie animale. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0497⟩. ⟨tel-02137516⟩



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