D. Aarsland, L. Marsh, and A. Schrag, Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, e : dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment, vol.24, pp.464-474, 2006.

V. Voon, A. R. Mehta, and M. Hallett, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.24, pp.324-330, 2011.

M. Sierra, S. Carnicella, A. P. Strafella, A. Bichon, E. Lhommee et al., Pathophysiology of L-dopa-induced motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.5, pp.9-15, 2015.

J. Pagonabarraga, J. Kulisevsky, A. P. Strafella, and P. Krack, Apathy in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, neural substrates, diagnosis, and treatment, Lancet Neurol, vol.14, pp.518-531, 2015.

R. S. Marin, Differential diagnosis and classification of apathy, Am J Psychiatry, vol.147, pp.2-2, 1990.

S. Thobois, C. Ardouin, E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, C. Lagrange et al., Non-motor dopamine withdrawal syndrome after surgery for Parkinson's disease: predictors and underlying mesolimbic denervation, Brain, vol.133, pp.1111-1127, 2010.

P. Remy, M. Doder, A. Lees, N. Turjanski, and D. Brooks, Depression in Parkinson's disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system, Brain, vol.128, pp.1314-1322, 2005.

S. E. Starkstein and S. Brockman, Apathy and Parkinson's disease, Curr Treat Options Neurol, vol.13, pp.267-273, 2011.

, Rodent models of PD-neuropsychiatric symptoms R Magnard et al

K. F. Pedersen, G. Alves, K. Bronnick, D. Aarsland, O. B. Tysnes et al., Apathy in drug-naive patients with incident Parkinson's disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study, J Neurol, vol.257, pp.217-223, 2009.

J. L. Houeto, V. Mesnage, L. Mallet, B. Pillon, M. Gargiulo et al., Behavioural disorders, Parkinson's disease and subthalamic stimulation, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.72, pp.0-1, 2002.

A. Castrioto, E. Lhommee, E. Moro, and P. Krack, Mood and behavioural effects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease, Lancet Neurol, vol.13, pp.287-305, 2014.

C. J. Lewis, F. Maier, C. Eggers, E. A. Pelzer, M. Maarouf et al., Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic stimulation and carers judge quality of life differently, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.20, pp.514-519, 2014.

R. Martinez-fernandez, P. Pelissier, J. L. Quesada, H. Klinger, E. Lhommee et al., Postoperative apathy can neutralise benefits in quality of life after subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.pii, pp.2014-310189, 2015.

E. Brissaud, Nature et pathogénie de la maladie de Parkinson, Leçons sur les maladies nerveuses: la Salpêtrière, pp.488-501, 1895.

P. Krack, J. Pagonabarraga, A. P. Strafella, and J. Kulisevsky, Apathy: who cares?, Lancet Neurol, vol.14, pp.4-6, 2015.

. Apa, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM IV, 4th edn, 1994.

, APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM 5, 5th edn, 2013.

D. Craufurd, J. C. Thompson, and J. S. Snowden, Behavioral changes in Huntington Disease, Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol, vol.14, pp.219-226, 2001.

E. Duijn, E. M. Kingma, and R. C. Van-der-mast, Psychopathology in verified Huntington's disease gene carriers, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.19, pp.441-448, 2007.

R. L. Drijgers, K. Dujardin, J. S. Reijnders, L. Defebvre, and A. F. Leentjens, Validation of diagnostic criteria for apathy in Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.16, pp.656-660, 2010.

J. Del-monte, D. Capdevielle, M. C. Gely-nargeot, H. Yazbek, F. Pupier et al., Evolution of the concept of apathy: the need for a multifactorial approach in schizophrenia, Encephale, vol.39, pp.57-63, 2013.

R. G. Brown and G. Pluck, Negative symptoms: the 'pathology' of motivation and goaldirected behaviour, Trends Neurosci, vol.23, pp.412-417, 2000.

G. C. Pluck and R. G. Brown, Apathy in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.73, pp.636-642, 2002.

R. S. Marin, R. C. Biedrzycki, and S. Firinciogullari, Reliability and validity of the Apathy Evaluation Scale, Psychiatry Res, vol.38, pp.143-162, 1991.

D. Belin, S. Jonkman, A. Dickinson, T. W. Robbins, and B. J. Everitt, Parallel and interactive learning processes within the basal ganglia: relevance for the understanding of addiction, Behav Brain Res, vol.199, pp.8-9, 2009.

H. H. Yin and B. J. Knowlton, The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.7, pp.4-6, 2006.

R. Levy and B. Dubois, Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortexbasal ganglia circuits, Cereb Cortex, vol.16, pp.9-10, 2006.

L. Schmidt, B. F. Arc, G. Lafargue, D. Galanaud, V. Czernecki et al., Disconnecting force from money: effects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation, Brain, vol.131, issue.1, pp.0-3, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00333398

V. Isella, P. Melzi, M. Grimaldi, S. Iurlaro, R. Piolti et al., neuropsychological, and morphometric correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease

, Mov Disord, vol.17, pp.366-371, 2002.

G. Loas, P. Krystkowiak, and O. Godefroy, Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: an overview, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.24, pp.444-451, 2012.

A. Der-avakian and A. Markou, The neurobiology of anhedonia and other rewardrelated deficits, Trends Neurosci, vol.35, pp.6-8, 2012.

F. Assogna, L. Cravello, C. Caltagirone, and G. Spalletta, Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of the literature, Mov Disord, vol.26, pp.1-8, 2011.

K. Dujardin, C. Langlois, L. Plomhause, A. S. Carette, M. Delliaux et al., Apathy in untreated early-stage Parkinson disease: relationship with other nonmotor symptoms, Mov Disord, vol.29, pp.1796-1801, 2014.

E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, S. Thobois, E. Schmitt, C. Ardouin et al., Subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: restoring the balance of motivated behaviours, Brain, vol.135, pp.1463-1477, 2012.

I. Rieu, P. Martinez-martin, B. Pereira, I. De-chazeron, L. Verhagen-metman et al., International validation of a behavioral scale in Parkinson's disease without dementia, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.705-713, 2015.

M. C. Rodriguez-oroz, M. Jahanshahi, P. Krack, I. Litvan, R. Macias et al., Initial clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease: features and pathophysiological mechanisms, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, pp.1128-1139, 2009.

A. Schrag, L. Horsfall, K. Walters, A. Noyce, and I. Petersen, Prediagnostic presentations of Parkinson's disease in primary care: a case-control study, Lancet Neurol, vol.14, pp.5-7, 2015.

D. Aarsland, K. Bronnick, G. Alves, O. B. Tysnes, K. F. Pedersen et al., The spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with early untreated Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.80, pp.928-930, 2009.

W. Poewe, Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Eur J Neurol, vol.15, pp.14-20, 2008.

H. Braak, D. Tredici, K. Rub, U. De-vos, R. A. et al., Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease, Neurobiol Aging, vol.24, pp.197-211, 2003.

V. Czernecki, M. Schupbach, S. Yaici, R. Levy, E. Bardinet et al., Apathy following subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson disease: a dopamine responsive symptom, Mov Disord, vol.23, pp.9-15, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00805452

A. F. Leentjens, J. Koester, B. Fruh, D. T. Shephard, P. Barone et al., The effect of pramipexole on mood and motivational symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies, Clin Ther, vol.31, pp.89-98, 2009.

K. Seppi, D. Weintraub, M. Coelho, S. Perez-lloret, S. H. Fox et al., The movement disorder society evidence-based medicine review update: treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.26, pp.42-80, 2011.

S. Thobois, E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, C. Ardouin, E. Schmitt et al., Parkinsonian apathy responds to dopaminergic stimulation of D2/D3 receptors with piribedil, Brain, vol.136, pp.1568-1577, 2013.

P. Barone, W. Poewe, S. Albrecht, C. Debieuvre, D. Massey et al., Pramipexole for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet Neurol, vol.9, pp.5-7, 2010.

L. Moal, M. Simon, and H. , Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: functional and regulatory roles, Physiol Rev, vol.71, pp.155-234, 1991.

A. Nieoullon and A. Coquerel, Dopamine: a key regulator to adapt action, emotion, motivation and cognition, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.16, pp.3-9, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00306939

V. Castagne, P. Moser, S. Roux, and R. D. Porsolt, Rodent models of depression: forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in rats and mice, Curr Protoc Neurosci, 2011.

E. J. Nestler and C. Wa, The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression, Biol Psychiatry, vol.59, pp.1151-1159, 2006.

K. M. Tye, J. J. Mirzabekov, M. R. Warden, E. A. Ferenczi, H. C. Tsai et al., Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depressionrelated behaviour, Nature, vol.493, pp.537-541, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nature11740

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4160519?pdf=render

F. C. Matheus, D. Rial, J. I. Real, C. Lemos, R. N. Takahashi et al., Temporal dissociation of striatum and prefrontal cortex uncouples anhedonia and defense behaviors relevant to depression in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, Mol Neurobiol advance online publication, 2015.

J. Olds, Drives and Reinforcements: Behavioral Studies of Hypothalamic Functions, 1977.

J. D. Salamone, M. Correa, A. Farrar, and S. M. Mingote, Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.191, pp.4-6, 2007.

T. Sun, W. He, G. Hu, and M. Li, Anxiolytic-like property of risperidone and olanzapine as examined in multiple measures of fear in rats, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.95, issue.2, pp.9-17, 2010.

W. Dauer and S. Przedborski, Parkinson's disease: mechanisms and models, Neuron, vol.39, pp.889-909, 2003.

R. A. Wise, Roles for nigrostriatal-not just mesocorticolimbic-dopamine in reward and addiction, Trends Neurosci, vol.32, pp.517-524, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2009.06.004

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2755633?pdf=render

R. J. Beninger and R. Ranaldi, Microinjections of flupenthixol into the caudate-putamen but not the nucleus accumbens, amygdala or frontal cortex of rats produce intra-session declines in food-rewarded operant responding, Behav Brain Res, vol.55, pp.203-212, 1993.

H. C. Fibiger, A. P. Zis, and E. G. Mcgeer, Feeding and drinking deficits after 6-hydroxydopamine administration in the rat: similarities to the lateral hypothalamic syndrome, Brain Res, vol.55, pp.1-3, 1973.

U. Ungerstedt, Adipsia and aphagia after 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system, Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, vol.367, pp.9-14, 1971.

A. P. Zis, H. C. Fibiger, and A. G. Phillips, Reversal by L-dopa of impaired learning due to destruction of the dopaminergic nigro-neostriatal projection, Science, vol.185, pp.960-962, 1974.

J. R. Hollerman and W. Schultz, Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning, Nat Neurosci, vol.1, pp.304-309, 1998.

J. R. Hollerman, L. Tremblay, and W. Schultz, Influence of reward expectation on behavior-related neuronal activity in primate striatum. JN e u r o p h y s i o l1998, vol.80, pp.947-963

A. Ilango, A. J. Kesner, K. L. Keller, G. D. Stuber, A. Bonci et al., Similar roles of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in reward and aversion, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.817-822, 2014.

M. A. Rossi, T. Sukharnikova, V. Y. Hayrapetyan, L. Yang, and H. H. Yin, Operant self-stimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, PLoS One, vol.8, p.65799, 2013.

J. N. Joyce, Dopamine D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian drugs, Pharmacol Ther, vol.90, pp.231-259, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/s0163-7258(01)00139-5

P. Sokoloff, J. Diaz, L. Foll, B. Guillin, O. Leriche et al., The dopamine D3 receptor: a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, vol.5, pp.25-43, 2006.

E. Bezard, S. Ferry, U. Mach, H. Stark, L. Leriche et al., Attenuation of levodopa-induced dyskinesia by normalizing dopamine D3 receptor function, Nat Med, vol.9, pp.762-767, 2003.

R. Bordet, S. Ridray, S. Carboni, J. Diaz, P. Sokoloff et al., Induction of dopamine D3 receptor expression as a mechanism of behavioral sensitization to levodopa, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.94, pp.3363-3367, 1997.

J. Jeanblanc, D. Y. He, N. N. Mcgough, M. L. Logrip, K. Phamluong et al., The dopamine D3 receptor is part of a homeostatic pathway regulating ethanol consumption, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.1457-1464, 2006.

E. H. Simpson, V. Winiger, D. K. Biezonski, I. Haq, E. R. Kandel et al., Selective overexpression of dopamine D3 receptors in the striatum disrupts motivation but not cognition, Biol Psychiatry, vol.76, pp.823-831, 2014.

A. Bjorklund and S. B. Dunnett, Dopamine neuron systems in the brain: an update, Trends Neurosci, vol.30, pp.1-9, 2007.

O. Guillin, J. Diaz, P. Carroll, N. Griffon, J. C. Schwartz et al., BDNF controls dopamine D3 receptor expression and triggers behavioural sensitization, Nature, vol.411, pp.8-14, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35075076

M. A. Cenci, V. Francardo, S. S. O'sullivan, and H. S. Lindgren, Rodent models of impulsive compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: how far have we reached? Neurobiol, Dis, vol.82, pp.561-573, 2015.

P. Seeman, Parkinson's disease treatment may cause impulse-control disorder via dopamine D3 receptors, Synapse, vol.69, pp.183-189, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/syn.21805

N. P. Visanji, J. Gomez-ramirez, T. H. Johnston, D. Pires, V. Voon et al., Pharmacological characterization of psychosis-like behavior in the MPTPlesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.21, pp.1879-1891, 2006.

, Rodent models of PD-neuropsychiatric symptoms R Magnard et al

C. A. Brown, M. C. Campbell, M. Karimi, S. D. Tabbal, S. K. Loftin et al., Dopamine pathway loss in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area predicts apathetic behavior in MPTP-lesioned monkeys, Exp Neurol, vol.236, pp.1-9, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.04.025

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3367030?pdf=render

L. Tian, Y. Xia, H. P. Flores, M. C. Campbell, S. M. Moerlein et al., Neuroimaging analysis of the dopamine basis for apathetic behaviors in an MPTP-lesioned primate model, PLoS One, vol.10, p.132064, 2015.

E. Durand, O. Petit, L. Tremblay, C. Zimmer, V. Sgambato-faure et al., Social behavioral changes in MPTP-treated monkey model of Parkinson's disease, Front Behav Neurosci, vol.9, pp.4-6, 2015.

E. Faggiani, C. Delaville, and A. Benazzouz, The combined depletion of monoamines alters the effectiveness of subthalamic deep brain stimulation, Neurobiol Dis, vol.82, pp.3-4, 2015.

M. Lee, Y. H. Ryu, W. G. Cho, Y. W. Kang, S. J. Lee et al., Relationship between dopamine deficit and the expression of depressive behavior resulted from alteration of serotonin system, Synapse, vol.69, pp.453-460, 2015.

M. Politis and F. Niccolini, Serotonin in Parkinson's disease, Behav Brain Res, vol.277, pp.136-145, 2015.

S. N. Haber and B. Knutson, The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.35, pp.4-26, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/npp.2009.129

URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2009129.pdf

S. Ikemoto, Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex, Brain Res Rev, vol.56, pp.2-7, 2007.

J. G. Ferreira, F. Del-fava, R. H. Hasue, and S. J. Shammah-lagnado, Organization of ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral tegmental area-nigral complex in the rat, Neuroscience, vol.153, pp.1-9, 2008.

D. Belin and B. J. Everitt, Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum, Neuron, vol.57, pp.432-441, 2008.

J. E. Murray, A. Belin-rauscent, M. Simon, C. Giuliano, M. Benoit-marand et al., Basolateral and central amygdala differentially recruit and maintain dorsolateral striatum-dependent cocaine-seeking habits, Nat Commun, 2015.

J. Yelnik, Modeling the organization of the basal ganglia, Rev Neurol (Paris), vol.164, pp.969-976, 2008.

D. Joel, Y. Niv, and E. Ruppin, Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives, Neural Netw, vol.15, pp.535-547, 2002.

J. O'doherty, P. Dayan, J. Schultz, R. Deichmann, K. Friston et al., Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning, Science, vol.304, pp.452-454, 2004.

A. Funkiewiez, C. Ardouin, P. Krack, V. Fraix, N. Van-blercom et al., Acute psychotropic effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.18, pp.524-530, 2003.

P. Krack, R. Kumar, C. Ardouin, P. L. Dowsey, J. M. Mcvicker et al., Mirthful laughter induced by subthalamic nucleus stimulation, Mov Disord, vol.16, pp.867-875, 2001.

L. Mallet, M. Schupbach, N. 'diaye, K. , R. P. Bardinet et al., Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.104, pp.10661-10666, 2007.

M. L. Welter, M. Schupbach, V. Czernecki, C. Karachi, S. Fernandez-vidal et al., Optimal target localization for subthalamic stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.82, issue.1, pp.5-7, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01251658

S. K. Tan, H. Hartung, S. Schievink, T. Sharp, and Y. Temel, High-frequency stimulation of the substantia nigra induces serotonin-dependent depression-like behavior in animal models, Biol Psychiatry, vol.73, pp.1-3, 2013.

V. Gradinaru, M. Mogri, K. R. Thompson, J. M. Henderson, and K. Deisseroth, Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry, Science, vol.324, pp.354-359, 2009.

D. Caudal, A. Alvarsson, A. Bjorklund, and P. Svenningsson, Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, Exp Neurol, vol.273, pp.243-252, 2015.

G. H. Petit, E. Berkovich, M. Hickery, P. Kallunki, K. Fog et al., Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease, PLoS One, 2013.

K. Mcdowell and M. F. Chesselet, Animal models of the non-motor features of Parkinson's disease, Neurobiol Dis, vol.46, pp.5-9, 2012.

L. L. Furlanetti, V. A. Coenen, I. A. Aranda, and M. D. Dobrossy, Chronic deep brain stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle reverses depressive-like behavior in a hemiparkinsonian rodent model, Exp Brain Res, vol.233, pp.3073-3085, 2015.

A. Samii, J. G. Nutt, and B. R. Ransom, Parkinson's disease, Lancet, vol.363, issue.9423, pp.1783-93, 2004.

K. R. Chaudhuri, D. G. Healy, and A. H. Schapira, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management, Lancet Neurol, vol.5, issue.3, pp.235-280, 2006.

K. R. Chaudhuri, P. Odin, A. Antonini, and P. Martinez-martin, Parkinson's disease: the non-motor issues, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.17, issue.10, pp.717-740, 2011.

E. Tolosa, Y. Compta, and C. Gaig, he premotor phase of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.13, 2007.

W. Poewe, Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Eur J Neurol, issue.1, p.15, 2008.

K. R. Chaudhuri and A. H. Schapira, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, issue.5, pp.464-74, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70068-7

D. Berg, R. B. Postuma, C. H. Adler, B. R. Bloem, P. Chan et al., MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.12, pp.1600-1611, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.26431

URL : https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt2v885924/qt2v885924.pdf?t=nz2ujb

P. Martinez-martin, C. Rodriguez-blazquez, M. M. Kurtis, and K. R. Chaudhuri,

, he impact of non-motor symptoms on healthrelated quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.26, issue.3, pp.399-406, 2011.

V. Voon, P. O. Fernagut, J. Wickens, C. Baunez, M. Rodriguez et al., Chronic dopaminergic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from dyskinesias to impulse control disorders, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, issue.12, p.70287, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70287-x

C. Vriend, T. Pattij, Y. D. Van-der-werf, P. Voorn, J. Booij et al., Depression and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: two sides of the same coin?, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.38, pp.60-71, 2014.

J. Pagonabarraga, J. Kulisevsky, A. P. Strafella, and P. Krack, Apathy in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, neural substrates, diagnosis, and treatment, Lancet Neurol, vol.14, issue.5, pp.518-549, 2015.

M. Sierra, S. Carnicella, A. P. Strafella, A. Bichon, E. Lhommee et al., Apathy and impulsive control disorders: yin & yang of dopamine dependent behaviors, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.5, issue.3, pp.625-661, 2015.
DOI : 10.3233/jpd-150535

V. Voon, A. R. Mehta, and M. Hallett, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.24, issue.4, pp.324-354, 2011.

I. Leroi, V. Harbishettar, M. Andrews, K. Mcdonald, E. J. Byrne et al., Carer burden in apathy and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.27, issue.2, pp.160-166, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/gps.2704

M. A. Cenci, V. Francardo, S. S. O'sullivan, and H. S. Lindgren, Rodent models of impulsive-compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: how far have we reached?, Neurobiol Dis, vol.82, pp.561-73, 2015.

, APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM 5. Fith, vol.947, 2013.

J. Joutsa, K. Martikainen, and V. Kaasinen, Parallel appearance of compulsive behaviors and artistic creativity in Parkinson's disease, Case Rep Neurol, vol.4, issue.1, pp.77-83, 2012.

E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, S. Hobois, E. Schmitt, C. Ardouin et al., Subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: restoring the balance of motivated behaviours, Brain, pp.1463-77, 2012.

T. W. Robbins and L. Clark, Behavioral addictions, Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol.30, pp.66-72, 2015.

Y. H. Yau and M. N. Potenza, Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment, Harv Rev Psychiatry, vol.23, issue.2, pp.134-180, 2015.
DOI : 10.1097/hrp.0000000000000051

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4458066?pdf=render

V. Voon and M. N. Potenza, Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson's disease, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.20, issue.4, pp.484-92, 2007.
DOI : 10.1001/archneur.64.8.1089

URL : https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/articlepdf/794263/nnr60022_1089_1096.pdf

A. L. Phu, Z. Xu, V. Brakoulias, N. Mahant, V. S. Fung et al., Efect of impulse control disorders on disability and quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients, J Clin Neurosci, vol.1, issue.2, pp.6-9

D. Weintraub, A. S. David, A. H. Evans, J. E. Grant, and M. Stacy, Clinical spectrum of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.2, pp.121-128, 2015.

D. Weintraub, T. Simuni, C. Caspell-garcia, C. Cofey, S. Lasch et al., Cognitive performance and neuropsychiatric symptoms in early, untreated Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.7, pp.919-946, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.26170

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4855523?pdf=render

D. A. Gallagher, S. S. O'sullivan, A. H. Evans, A. J. Lees, and A. Schrag, Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: risk factors and diferences from dopamine dysregulation. An analysis of published case series, Mov Disord, vol.22, issue.12, pp.1757-63, 2007.

J. M. Bostwick, K. A. Hecksel, S. R. Stevens, J. H. Bower, and J. E. Ahlskog, Frequency of new-onset pathologic compulsive gambling or hypersexuality ater drug treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease, Mayo Clin Proc, vol.84, issue.4, pp.60538-60545, 2009.

S. L. Mcelroy, P. E. Keck, . Jr, H. G. Pope, J. M. Smith et al., Compulsive buying: a report of 20 cases, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.55, issue.6, pp.242-250, 1994.

V. Voon, T. Miyasaki, J. M. De-souza, M. Shafro, A. Fox et al., Factors associated with dopaminergic drug-related pathological gambling in Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.64, issue.2, pp.212-218, 2007.

G. Rylander, Psychoses and the punding and choreiform syndromes in addiction to central stimulant drugs, Psychiatr Neurol Neurochir, vol.75, issue.3, pp.203-215, 1972.

A. H. Evans, R. Katzenschlager, D. Paviour, J. D. O'sullivan, S. Appel et al., Punding in Parkinson's disease: its relation to the dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Mov Disord, vol.19, issue.4, pp.397-405, 2004.

A. J. Lawrence, A. D. Blackwell, R. A. Barker, F. Spagnolo, L. Clark et al., Predictors of punding in Parkinson's disease: results from a questionnaire survey, Mov Disord, vol.22, issue.16, pp.2339-2384, 2007.

S. S. O'sullivan, A. H. Evans, and A. J. Lees, Punding in Parkinson's disease, Pract Neurol, vol.7, issue.6, pp.397-406, 2007.

S. S. O'sullivan, A. Djamshidian, A. H. Evans, C. M. Loane, A. J. Lees et al., Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, issue.8, pp.1026-1059, 2010.

G. Giovannoni, J. D. O'sullivan, K. Turner, A. J. Manson, and A. J. Lees, Hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation in patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine replacement therapies, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.68, issue.4, pp.423-431, 2000.

J. L. Houeto, V. Mesnage, L. Mallet, B. Pillon, M. Gargiulo et al., Behavioural disorders, Parkinson's disease and subthalamic stimulation

, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.72, issue.6, pp.701-708, 2002.

A. D. Lawrence, A. H. Evans, and A. J. Lees, Compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease: reward systems gone awry?, Lancet Neurol, vol.2, issue.10, pp.595-604, 2003.

A. H. Evans, A. D. Lawrence, S. A. Cresswell, R. Katzenschlager, and A. J. Lees, Compulsive use of dopaminergic drug therapy in Parkinson's disease: reward and anti-reward, Mov Disord, issue.7, pp.867-76, 2010.

N. Giladi, N. Weitzman, S. Schreiber, H. Shabtai, and C. Peretz, New onset heightened interest or drive for gambling, shopping, eating or sexual activity in patients with Parkinson's disease: the role of dopamine agonist treatment and age at motor symptoms onset, J Psychopharmacol, vol.21, issue.5, pp.501-507, 2007.

I. U. Isaias, C. Siri, R. Cilia, D. Gaspari, D. Pezzoli et al., he relationship between impulsivity and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.23, issue.3, pp.411-416, 2008.

A. Antonini, C. Siri, G. Santangelo, R. Cilia, M. Poletti et al., Impulsivity and compulsivity in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.26, issue.3, pp.464-472, 2011.

D. Weintraub, K. Papay, and A. Siderowf, Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Screening for impulse control symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson disease: a case-control study, Neurology, vol.80, issue.2, pp.176-80, 2013.

D. Weintraub, J. Koester, M. N. Potenza, A. D. Siderowf, M. Stacy et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients, Arch Neurol, issue.5, pp.589-95, 2010.

, Frontiers in Psychiatry | www.frontiersin.org May, vol.7, p.91, 2016.

A. H. Evans, A. D. Lawrence, J. Potts, S. Appel, and A. J. Lees, Factors inluencing susceptibility to compulsive dopaminergic drug use in Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.65, issue.10, pp.1570-1574, 2005.

D. Vilas, C. Pont-sunyer, and E. Tolosa, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.18, issue.1, pp.70026-70034, 2012.

H. M. Smeding, A. E. Goudriaan, E. M. Foncke, P. R. Schuurman, J. D. Speelman et al., Pathological gambling ater bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.78, issue.5, pp.517-526, 2007.

M. Broen, A. Duits, V. Visser-vandewalle, Y. Temel, and A. Winogrodzka, Impulse control and related disorders in Parkinson's disease patients treated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation: a review, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.17, issue.6, pp.413-420, 2011.

T. Witjas, C. Baunez, J. M. Henry, M. Delini, J. Regis et al., Addiction in Parkinson's disease: impact of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, Mov Disord, vol.20, issue.8, pp.1052-1057, 2005.

A. Castrioto, E. Lhommee, E. Moro, and P. Krack, Mood and behavioural efects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease, Lancet Neurol, vol.13, issue.3, pp.287-305, 2014.

S. Y. Lim, S. S. O'sullivan, K. Kotschet, D. A. Gallagher, C. Lacey et al., Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, impulse control disorders and punding ater deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease, J Clin Neurosci, vol.16, issue.9, pp.1148-52, 2009.

M. Jahanshahi, I. Obeso, C. Baunez, M. Alegre, and P. Krack, Parkinson's disease, the subthalamic nucleus, inhibition, and impulsivity, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.2, pp.128-168, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.26049

A. H. Evans and A. J. Lees, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.17, issue.4, pp.393-401, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/01.wco.0000137528.23126.41

D. Aarsland, K. Bronnick, G. Alves, O. B. Tysnes, K. F. Pedersen et al., he spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with early untreated Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.80, issue.8, 2009.

C. A. Rabinak and M. J. Nirenberg, Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome in Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.67, issue.1, pp.58-63, 2010.
DOI : 10.1001/archneurol.2009.294

URL : https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/articlepdf/799048/noc90071_58_63.pdf

E. Aarts, R. C. Helmich, M. J. Janssen, W. J. Oyen, B. R. Bloem et al., Aberrant reward processing in Parkinson's disease is associated with dopamine cell loss, 0 1 2 ) 5, vol.9, pp.3-3
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.073

J. D. Jentsch, J. R. Ashenhurst, M. C. Cervantes, S. M. Groman, A. S. James et al., Dissecting impulsivity and its relationships to drug addictions, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1327, pp.1-26, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/nyas.12388

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4360991?pdf=render

N. P. Visanji, J. Gomez-ramirez, T. H. Johnston, D. Pires, V. Voon et al., Pharmacological characterization of psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.21, issue.11, pp.1879-91, 2006.

A. Djamshidian, B. B. Averbeck, A. J. Lees, O. Sullivan, and S. S. , Clinical aspects of impulsive compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Sci, issue.1-2, pp.183-191, 2011.

F. Cormier, J. Muellner, and J. C. Corvol, Genetics of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, J Neural Transm, vol.120, issue.4, pp.665-71, 2013.

A. Dagher and T. W. Robbins, Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease, Neuron, issue.4, pp.502-512, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.01.031

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.01.031

V. Voon, M. Pessiglione, C. Brezing, C. Gallea, H. H. Fernandez et al., Mechanisms underlying dopamine-mediated reward bias in compulsive behaviors, Neuron, vol.65, issue.1, pp.135-177, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.027

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.027

J. W. Dalley, B. J. Everitt, and T. W. Robbins, Impulsivity, compulsivity, and topdown cognitive control, Neuron, vol.69, issue.4, pp.680-94, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.01.020

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.01.020

F. Antonelli, N. Ray, and A. P. Strafella, Impulsivity and Parkinson's disease: more than just disinhibition, J Neurol Sci, pp.202-209, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jns.2011.06.006

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3440306?pdf=render

C. R. Housden, S. S. O'sullivan, E. M. Joyce, A. J. Lees, and J. P. Roiser, Intact reward learning but elevated delay discounting in Parkinson's disease patients with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors, Neuropsychopharmacology, issue.11, pp.2155-64, 2010.

M. Rossi, E. R. Gerschcovich, D. De-achaval, S. Perez-lloret, D. Cerquetti et al., Decision-making in Parkinson's disease patients with and without pathological gambling, Eur J Neurol, vol.17, issue.1, pp.97-102, 2010.

V. Voon, B. Reynolds, C. Brezing, C. Gallea, M. Skaljic et al., Impulsive choice and response in dopamine agonist-related impulse control behaviors, Psychopharmacology (Berl), issue.4, pp.645-59, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-009-1697-y

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3676926?pdf=render

D. Frosini, I. Pesaresi, M. Cosottini, G. Belmonte, C. Rossi et al., Parkinson's disease and pathological gambling: results from a functional MRI study, Mov Disord, issue.14, pp.2449-53, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.23369

G. F. Koob and N. D. Volkow, Neurocircuitry of addiction, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.35, issue.1, pp.217-255, 2010.

T. D. Steeves, J. Miyasaki, M. Zurowski, A. E. Lang, G. Pellecchia et al., Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study, Brain, pp.1376-85, 2009.

J. Joutsa, J. Johansson, S. Niemela, A. Ollikainen, M. M. Hirvonen et al., Mesolimbic dopamine release is linked to symptom severity in pathological gambling, Neuroimage, vol.60, issue.4, pp.1992-2001, 2012.

S. S. O'sullivan, K. Wu, M. Politis, A. D. Lawrence, A. H. Evans et al., Cueinduced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours, Brain, pp.969-78, 2011.

K. Wu, M. Politis, S. S. O'sullivan, A. D. Lawrence, S. Warsi et al., Single versus multiple impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: an 11

, C-raclopride positron emission tomography study of reward cue-evoked striatal dopamine release, J Neurol, vol.262, issue.6, pp.1504-1518, 2015.

A. H. Evans, A. D. Lawrence, J. Potts, L. Macgregor, R. Katzenschlager et al., Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and cafeine intake, and Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.77, issue.3, pp.317-338, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/jnnp.2005.065417

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2077692?pdf=render

C. A. Bonnin, J. L. Houeto, R. Gil, and C. A. Bouquet, Adjustments of conlict monitoring in Parkinson's disease, Neuropsychology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.542-548, 2010.

M. J. Frank, J. Samanta, A. A. Moustafa, and S. J. Sherman, Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism, Science, vol.318, issue.5854, pp.1309-1321, 2007.

L. R. Aleksandrova, M. C. Creed, P. J. Fletcher, D. S. Lobo, C. Hamani et al., Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases premature responding in a rat gambling task, Behav Brain Res, vol.245, pp.76-82, 2013.

M. C. Rodriguez-oroz, J. Lopez-azcarate, D. Garcia-garcia, M. Alegre, J. Toledo et al., Involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson's disease, Brain, pp.36-49, 2011.

B. Ballanger, T. Van-eimeren, E. Moro, A. M. Lozano, C. Hamani et al., Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and impulsivity: release your horses, Ann Neurol, vol.66, issue.6, pp.817-841, 2009.

S. A. Wylie, K. R. Ridderinkhof, W. J. Elias, R. C. Frysinger, T. R. Bashore et al., Subthalamic nucleus stimulation inluences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson's disease, Brain, pp.3611-3635, 2010.

F. Antonelli, J. H. Ko, J. Miyasaki, A. E. Lang, S. Houle et al., Dopamineagonists and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease: impulsive choices vs. impulsive actions, Hum Brain Mapp, vol.35, issue.6, pp.2499-506, 2014.

M. Milenkova, B. Mohammadi, K. Kollewe, C. Schrader, A. Fellbrich et al., Intertemporal choice in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.26, issue.11, pp.2004-2014, 2011.

M. Al-khaled, M. Heldmann, I. Bolstorf, J. Hagenah, and T. F. Munte, Intertem poral choice in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.21, issue.11, pp.1330-1335, 2015.

, Frontiers in Psychiatry | www.frontiersin.org May, vol.7, p.91, 2016.

V. Voon and J. W. Dalley, Parkinson disease: impulsive choice-Parkinson disease and dopaminergic therapy, Nat Rev Neurol, vol.7, issue.10, pp.541-543, 2011.

J. W. Dalley, J. P. Roiser, . Dopamine, and . Neuroscience, , vol.215, pp.42-58, 2012.

B. Jupp, D. Caprioli, and J. Dalley, Highly impulsive rats: modelling an endophenotype to determine the neurobiological, genetic and environmental mechanisms of addiction, Dis Model Mech, vol.6, pp.302-313, 2013.

B. Jupp, D. Caprioli, N. Saigal, I. Reverte, S. Shrestha et al., Dopaminergic and GABA-ergic markers of impulsivity in rats: evidence for anatomical localisation in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, Eur J Neurosci, vol.37, pp.1519-1547, 2013.

E. Decamp and J. S. Schneider, Attention and executive function deicits in chronic low-dose MPTP-treated non-human primates, Eur J Neurosci, vol.20, issue.5, pp.1371-1379, 2004.

S. L. Rokosik and T. C. Napier, Pramipexole-induced increased probabilistic discounting: comparison between a rodent model of Parkinson's disease and controls, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, issue.6, pp.1397-408, 2012.

S. E. Tedford, A. L. Persons, and T. C. Napier, Dopaminergic lesions of the dorsolateral striatum in rats increase delay discounting in an impulsive choice task, PLoS One, vol.10, issue.4, p.122063, 2015.

S. Hobois, F. Vingerhoets, V. Fraix, J. Xie-brustolin, H. Mollion et al., Role of dopaminergic treatment in dopamine receptor down-regulation in advanced Parkinson disease: a positron emission tomographic study, Arch Neurol, issue.11, pp.1705-1714, 2004.

D. E. Payer, M. Guttman, S. J. Kish, J. Tong, A. Strafella et al., (+)-PHNO PET imaging of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorders, Mov Disord, vol.11, issue.2, pp.160-166, 2015.

I. Boileau, M. Guttman, P. Rusjan, J. R. Adams, S. Houle et al., Decreased binding of the D3 dopamine receptor-preferring ligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO in drug-naive Parkinson's disease, Brain, pp.1366-75, 2009.

R. V. Van-oosten, M. M. Verheij, and A. R. Cools, Bilateral nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions increase the amount of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, Exp Neurol, vol.191, issue.1, pp.24-32, 2005.

J. W. Buckholtz, M. T. Treadway, R. L. Cowan, N. D. Woodward, R. Li et al., Dopaminergic network diferences in human impulsivity, Science, issue.5991, p.532, 2010.

J. W. Dalley, T. D. Fryer, L. Brichard, E. S. Robinson, H. De et al., Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement, Science, issue.5816, p.315, 2007.

L. Diergaarde, T. Pattij, I. Poortvliet, F. Hogenboom, W. Devries et al., Impulsive choice and impulsive action predict vulnerability to distinct stages of nicotine seeking in rats, Biol Psychiatry, vol.63, issue.3, pp.301-309, 2008.

M. Besson, Y. Pelloux, R. Dilleen, H. De, A. Lyon et al., Cocaine modulation of frontostriatal expression of Zif268, D2, and 5-HT2c receptors in high and low impulsive rats, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.38, issue.10, pp.1963-73, 2013.

T. J. Moore, J. Glenmullen, and D. R. Mattison, Reports of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping associated with dopamine receptor agonist drugs, JAMA Intern Med, vol.174, issue.12, pp.1930-1933, 2014.

R. Cools, Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function-implications for l-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.30, issue.1, pp.1-23, 2006.

H. Bernheimer, W. Birkmayer, O. Hornykiewicz, K. Jellinger, and F. Seitelberger, Brain dopamine and the syndromes of Parkinson and Huntington. Clinical, morphological and neurochemical correlations, J Neurol Sci, vol.20, issue.4, pp.415-55, 1973.

S. J. Kish, K. Shannak, and O. Hornykiewicz, Uneven pattern of dopamine loss in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiologic and clinical implications, N Engl J Med, vol.318, issue.14, pp.876-80, 1988.

R. Cools, R. Barker, B. Sahakian, and T. Robbins, Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands, Cereb Cortex, vol.11, issue.12, pp.1136-1179, 2001.

M. J. Frank, Dynamic dopamine modulation in the basal ganglia: a neurocomputational account of cognitive deicits in medicated and nonmedicated Parkinsonism, J Cogn Neurosci, vol.17, issue.1, pp.51-72, 2005.

K. Basar, T. Sesia, H. Groenewegen, H. Steinbusch, V. Visser-vandewalle et al., Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity, Prog Neurobiol, vol.92, issue.4, pp.533-57, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.08.007

Y. Goto and A. Grace, Limbic and cortical information processing in the nucleus accumbens, Trends Neurosci, issue.11, pp.552-560, 2008.

P. Seeman, Parkinson's disease treatment may cause impulse-control disorder via dopamine D3 receptors, Synapse, vol.69, issue.4, pp.183-192, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/syn.21805

A. Arnsten, Toward a new understanding of attention-deicit hyperactivity disorder pathophysiology: an important role for prefrontal cortex dysfunction, CNS Drugs, issue.1, pp.33-41, 2009.

P. Baarendse, C. Winstanley, and L. Vanderschuren, Simultaneous blockade of dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake promotes disadvantageous decision making in a rat gambling task, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.225, issue.3, pp.719-750, 2013.

C. Humpston, C. Wood, and R. E. , Investigating the roles of diferent monoamine transmitters and impulse control using the 5-choice serial reaction time task, J Psychopharmacol, vol.27, issue.2, pp.213-234, 2013.

S. Ansquer, A. Belin-rauscent, E. Dugast, T. Duran, I. Benatru et al., Atomoxetine decreases vulnerability to develop compulsivity in high impulsive rats, Biol Psychiatry, vol.75, issue.10, pp.825-857, 2014.

P. Remy, M. Doder, A. Lees, N. Turjanski, and D. Brooks, Depression in Parkinson's disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system, Brain, pp.1314-1336, 2005.

C. Delaville, P. D. Deurwaerdere, and A. Benazzouz, Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease, Front Syst Neurosci, vol.5, p.31, 2011.

M. Politis and F. Niccolini, Serotonin in Parkinson's disease, Behav Brain Res, vol.277, pp.136-181, 2015.

A. A. Kehagia, C. R. Housden, R. Regenthal, R. A. Barker, U. Muller et al., Targeting impulsivity in Parkinson's disease using atomoxetine, Brain, pp.1986-97, 2014.

Z. Ye, E. Altena, C. Nombela, C. R. Housden, H. Maxwell et al., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition modulates response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, Brain, pp.1145-55, 2014.

Z. Ye, E. Altena, C. Nombela, C. R. Housden, H. Maxwell et al., Improving response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with atomoxetine, Biol Psychiatry, vol.77, issue.8, pp.740-748, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.01.024

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.01.024

Z. Ye, C. L. Rae, C. Nombela, T. Ham, T. Rittman et al., Predicting beneicial efects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures, Hum Brain Mapp, vol.37, issue.3, pp.1026-1063, 2016.

D. Economidou, J. Dalley, and B. Everitt, Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition by atomoxetine prevents cue-induced heroin and cocaine seeking, Biol Psychiatry, vol.69, issue.3, pp.266-74, 2011.

D. Economidou, D. Robbins, T. Everitt, B. Dalley, and J. , Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the ive-choice serial reaction time task through opponent actions in the shell and core sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, issue.9, pp.2057-66, 2012.

Y. Pelloux, R. Dilleen, D. Economidou, D. Heobald, and B. Everitt, Reduced forebrain serotonin transmission is causally involved in the development of compulsive cocaine seeking in rats, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, issue.11, pp.2505-2519, 2012.

Y. Pelloux, J. E. Murray, and B. J. Everitt, Diferential roles of the prefrontal cortical subregions and basolateral amygdala in compulsive cocaine seeking and relapse ater voluntary abstinence in rats, Eur J Neurosci, vol.38, pp.3018-3044, 2013.

, Frontiers in Psychiatry | www.frontiersin.org May, vol.7, p.91, 2016.

D. Caprioli, S. Sawiak, E. Merlo, D. Heobald, M. Spoelder et al., Gamma aminobutyric acidergic and neuronal structural markers in the nucleus accumbens core underlie trait-like impulsive behavior, Biol Psychiatry, vol.75, issue.2, pp.115-138, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.07.013

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.07.013

E. J. Khantzian, Addiction: self-destruction or self-repair?, J Subst Abuse Treat, vol.6, issue.2, p.75, 1989.

E. J. Khantzian, Addiction as a self-regulation disorder and the role of self-medication, Addiction, vol.108, issue.4, pp.668-677, 2013.

G. F. Koob, L. Moal, and M. , Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation, Science, vol.278, issue.5335, pp.52-60, 1997.
DOI : 10.1126/science.278.5335.52

G. Koob, L. Moal, and M. Review, Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol.363, pp.3113-3136, 1507.

D. Aarsland, L. Marsh, and A. Schrag, Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.24, issue.15, pp.2175-86, 2009.

N. Sinha, S. Manohar, and M. Husain, Impulsivity and apathy in Parkinson's disease, J Neuropsychol, vol.7, issue.2, pp.255-83, 2013.

A. Schrag, Quality of life and depression in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Sci, vol.248, issue.1-2, pp.151-158, 2006.

D. Aarsland, S. Pahlhagen, C. G. Ballard, U. Ehrt, and P. Svenningsson, Depression in Parkinson disease - epidemiology, mechanisms and management, Nat Rev Neurol, vol.8, issue.1, pp.35-47, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.189

F. Assogna, L. Cravello, C. Caltagirone, and G. Spalletta, Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of the literature, Mov Disord, vol.26, issue.10, pp.1825-1859, 2011.

V. Isella, P. Melzi, M. Grimaldi, S. Iurlaro, R. Piolti et al., Clinical, neuropsychological, and morphometric correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.17, issue.2, pp.366-71, 2002.

R. Levy and B. Dubois, Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits, Cereb Cortex, vol.16, issue.7, pp.916-944, 2006.

L. Schmidt, B. F. Arc, G. Lafargue, D. Galanaud, V. Czernecki et al., Disconnecting force from money: efects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation, Brain, pp.1303-1313, 2008.

K. Dujardin, P. Sockeel, D. Devos, M. Delliaux, P. Krystkowiak et al., Characteristics of apathy in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.22, issue.6, pp.778-84, 2007.

E. Cubo, J. Benito-leon, C. Coronell, D. Armesto, and A. S. Group, Clinical correlates of apathy in patients recently diagnosed with Parkinson's disease: the ANIMO study, Neuroepidemiology, vol.38, issue.1, pp.48-55, 2012.

M. G. Den-brok, J. W. Van-dalen, W. A. Van-gool, M. Van-charante, E. P. De-bie et al., Apathy in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.6, pp.759-69, 2015.

K. Dujardin, P. Sockeel, M. Delliaux, A. Destee, and L. Defebvre, Apathy may herald cognitive decline and dementia in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.24, issue.16, pp.2391-2398, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.22843

URL : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/mds.22843

G. Santangelo, L. Trojano, P. Barone, D. Errico, D. Grossi et al., Apathy in Parkinson's disease: diagnosis, neuropsychological correlates, pathophysiology and treatment, Behav Neurol, vol.27, issue.4, pp.501-514, 2013.
DOI : 10.1155/2013/851890

URL : http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2013/851890.pdf

R. S. Marin, Diferential diagnosis and classiication of apathy, Am J Psychiatry, vol.147, issue.1, 1990.

L. Kirsch-darrow, H. H. Fernandez, M. Marsiske, M. S. Okun, and D. Bowers, Dissociating apathy and depression in Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.67, issue.1, pp.33-41, 2006.

S. E. Starkstein, M. Merello, J. R. Brockman, S. Bruce, D. Power et al., he syndromal validity and nosological position of apathy in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.24, issue.8, pp.1211-1217, 2009.

G. Loas, P. Krystkowiak, and O. Godefroy, Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: an overview, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.24, issue.4, pp.444-51, 2012.

K. Dujardin, C. Langlois, L. Plomhause, A. S. Carette, M. Delliaux et al., Apathy in untreated early-stage Parkinson disease: relationship with other non-motor symptoms, Mov Disord, vol.29, issue.14, pp.1796-801, 2014.

K. Matsui, H. Tachibana, T. Yamanishi, M. Oguru, K. Toda et al., Clinical correlates of anhedonia in patients with Parkinson's disease, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol.2, pp.5-7

M. R. Lemke, Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Eur J Neurol, issue.1, pp.21-26, 2008.

S. E. Starkstein and A. F. Leentjens, he nosological position of apathy in clinical practice, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.79, issue.10, pp.1088-92, 2008.

A. F. Leentjens, K. Dujardin, L. Marsh, P. Martinez-martin, I. H. Richard et al., Apathy and anhedonia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations, Mov Disord, vol.23, issue.14, pp.2004-2018, 2008.

G. Loas, C. Duru, O. Godefroy, and P. Krystkowiak, Hedonic deicits in Parkinson's disease: is consummatory anhedonia speciic? Front Neurol, vol.5, p.24, 2014.

A. Der-avakian and A. Markou, he neurobiology of anhedonia and other reward-related deicits, Trends Neurosci, vol.35, issue.1, pp.68-77, 2012.

L. L. Jordan, L. B. Zahodne, M. S. Okun, and D. Bowers, Hedonic and behavioral deicits associated with apathy in Parkinson's disease: potential treatment implications, Mov Disord, vol.28, issue.9, pp.1301-1305, 2013.

I. Rieu, P. Martinez-martin, B. Pereira, I. De-chazeron, L. Verhagen-metman et al., International validation of a behavioral scale in Parkinson's disease without dementia, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.5, pp.705-718, 2015.

A. Castrioto, S. Carnicella, S. Maillet, A. Krack, and P. , Emotional manifestations of PD: neurobiological basis, Mov Disord, 2016.

A. Ali-cherif, M. L. Royere, A. Gosset, M. Poncet, G. Salamon et al., Behavior and mental activity disorders ater carbon monoxide poisoning

, Rev Neurol, issue.6-7, pp.401-406, 1984.

D. Laplane and B. Dubois, Auto-activation deicit: a basal ganglia related syndrome, Mov Disord, vol.16, issue.5, pp.810-814, 2001.

R. Levy and V. Czernecki, Apathy and the basal ganglia, J Neurol, issue.7, p.253, 2006.

M. C. Rodriguez-oroz, M. Jahanshahi, P. Krack, I. Litvan, R. Macias et al., Initial clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease: features and pathophysiological mechanisms, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, issue.12, pp.70293-70298, 2009.

H. Braak, D. Tredici, K. Rub, U. De-vos, R. A. et al., Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease, Neurobiol Aging, vol.24, issue.2, pp.197-211, 2003.

S. Hobois, C. Ardouin, E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, C. Lagrange et al., Nonmotor dopamine withdrawal syndrome ater surgery for Parkinson's disease: predictors and underlying mesolimbic denervation, Brain, pp.1111-1138, 2010.

A. F. Leentjens, J. Koester, B. Fruh, D. T. Shephard, P. Barone et al., he efect of pramipexole on mood and motivational symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies, Clin her, vol.31, issue.1, pp.89-98, 2009.

P. Barone, Treatment of depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Eur J Neurol, vol.18, issue.1, pp.11-16, 2011.

R. Erro, S. Pappata, M. Amboni, C. Vicidomini, K. Longo et al., Anxiety is associated with striatal dopamine transporter availability in newly diagnosed untreated Parkinson's disease patients, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.18, issue.9, pp.1034-1042, 2012.

G. Santangelo, C. Vitale, L. Trojano, M. Picillo, M. Moccia et al., Relationship between apathy and cognitive dysfunctions in de novo untreated Parkinson's disease: a prospective longitudinal study, Eur J Neurol, vol.22, issue.2, pp.253-60, 2015.

C. Vriend, A. H. Nordbeck, J. Booij, Y. D. Van-der-werf, T. Pattij et al., Reduced dopamine transporter binding predates impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.29, issue.7, pp.904-915, 2014.

C. A. Brown, M. C. Campbell, M. Karimi, S. D. Tabbal, S. K. Lotin et al., Dopamine pathway loss in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area predicts apathetic behavior in MPTP-lesioned monkeys, Exp Neurol, vol.236, issue.1, pp.190-197, 2012.

L. Tian, Y. Xia, H. P. Flores, M. C. Campbell, S. M. Moerlein et al., Neuroimaging analysis of the dopamine basis for apathetic behaviors in an MPTP-lesioned primate model, PLoS One, vol.10, issue.7, p.132064, 2015.

, Frontiers in Psychiatry | www.frontiersin.org May, vol.7, p.91, 2016.

S. Carnicella, G. Drui, S. Boulet, C. Carcenac, M. Favier et al., Implication of dopamine D3 receptor activation in the reversion of Parkinson's disease-related motivational deicits, Transl Psychiatry, vol.4, p.401, 2014.

G. Drui, S. Carnicella, C. Carcenac, M. Favier, A. Bertrand et al., Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons accounts for the motivational and afective deicits in Parkinson's disease, Mol Psychiatry, vol.19, issue.3, pp.358-67, 2014.

M. Favier, T. Duran, C. Carcenac, G. Drui, M. Savasta et al., Pramipexole reverses Parkinson's disease-related motivational deicits in rats, Mov Disord, vol.29, issue.7, pp.912-932, 2014.

R. Magnard, Y. Vachez, C. Carcenac, P. Krack, O. David et al., What can rodent models tell us about apathy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease?, Transl Psychiatry, vol.6, p.753, 2016.

Y. Agid, I. Arnulf, P. Bejjani, F. Bloch, A. M. Bonnet et al., Parkinson's disease is a neuropsychiatric disorder, Adv Neurol, vol.91, pp.365-70, 2003.

S. Hesse, P. M. Meyer, K. Strecker, H. Barthel, F. Wegner et al., Monoamine transporter availability in Parkinson's disease patients with or without depression, Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, vol.36, issue.3, pp.428-463, 2009.

Z. Qamhawi, D. Towey, B. Shah, G. Pagano, J. Seibyl et al., Clinical correlates of raphe serotonergic dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease, Brain, pp.2964-73, 2015.

N. Carriere, P. Besson, K. Dujardin, A. Duhamel, L. Defebvre et al., Apathy in Parkinson's disease is associated with nucleus accumbens atrophy: a magnetic resonance imaging shape analysis, Mov Disord, vol.29, issue.7, pp.897-903, 2014.

D. Drapier, S. Drapier, P. Sauleau, C. Haegelen, R. S. Biseul et al., Does subthalamic nucleus stimulation induce apathy in Parkinson's disease?, J Neurol, vol.253, issue.8, pp.1083-91, 2006.

L. Jeune, F. Drapier, D. Bourguignon, A. Peron, J. Mesbah et al., Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease induces apathy: a PET study, Neurology, vol.73, issue.21, pp.1746-51, 2009.

S. K. Tan, H. Hartung, S. Schievink, T. Sharp, and Y. Temel, High-frequency stimulation of the substantia nigra induces serotonin-dependent depression-like behavior in animal models, Biol Psychiatry, vol.73, issue.2, pp.1-3, 2013.

G. H. Robert, L. Jeune, F. Lozachmeur, C. Drapier, S. Dondaine et al., Preoperative factors of apathy in subthalamic stimulated Parkinson disease: a PET study, Neurology, vol.83, issue.18, pp.1620-1626, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01133830

M. Skorvanek, Z. Gdovinova, J. Rosenberger, R. G. Saeedian, I. Nagyova et al., he associations between fatigue, apathy, and depression in Parkinson's disease, Acta Neurol Scand, vol.131, issue.2, pp.80-87, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/ane.12282

M. Pettorruso, G. Martinotti, A. Fasano, G. Loria, D. Nicola et al., Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease patients with and without pathological gambling: a case-control study, Psychiatry Res, vol.215, issue.2, pp.448-52, 2014.

K. R. Homsen, M. B. Callesen, J. Linnet, M. L. Kringelbach, and A. Moller, Severity of gambling is associated with severity of depressive symptoms in pathological gamblers, Behav Pharmacol, vol.20, issue.5-6, pp.527-563, 2009.

M. B. Callesen, D. Weintraub, M. F. Damholdt, and A. Moller, Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.20, issue.1, pp.22-28, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.09.006

E. Jaakkola, V. Kaasinen, C. Siri, K. Martikainen, R. Cilia et al., Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.4, issue.3, pp.507-522, 2014.

J. Joutsa, K. Martikainen, T. Vahlberg, V. Voon, and V. Kaasinen, Impulse control disorders and depression in Finnish patients with Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.18, issue.2, pp.155-60, 2012.

G. Koob, L. Moal, and M. , Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.195-195, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/s0893-133x(00)00195-0

URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/1395603.pdf

G. Koob, L. Moal, and M. , Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the 'dark side' of drug addiction, Nat Neurosci, vol.8, issue.11, pp.1442-1446, 2005.

G. F. Koob, L. Moal, and M. , Addiction and the brain antireward system, Annu Rev Psychol, vol.59, pp.29-53, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548

A. H. Evans, N. Pavese, A. D. Lawrence, Y. F. Tai, S. Appel et al., Compulsive drug use linked to sensitized ventral striatal dopamine transmission, Ann Neurol, vol.59, issue.5, pp.852-860, 2006.

T. E. Robinson and K. C. Berridge, Incentive-sensitization and addiction, Addiction, vol.96, issue.1, pp.103-117, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2001.9611038.x

P. Calabresi, F. Galletti, E. Saggese, V. Ghiglieri, and B. Picconi, Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity in Parkinson's disease: beyond motor deicits, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, issue.3, pp.70013-70013, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/s1353-8020(08)70013-0

E. Aarts, M. Van-holstein, and R. Cools, Striatal dopamine and the interface between motivation and cognition, Front. Psychol, vol.2, p.163, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00163

URL : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00163/pdf

M. Al-khaled, M. Heldmann, I. Bolstorff, J. Hagenah, and T. F. Munte, Intertemporal choice in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, Parkinsonism Relat. Disord, vol.21, pp.1330-1335, 2015.

S. Ansquer, A. Belin-rauscent, E. Dugast, T. Duran, I. Benatru et al., Atomoxetine decreases vulnerability to develop compulsivity in high impulsive rats, Biol. Psychiatry, vol.75, pp.825-832, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.09.031

K. Basar, T. Sesia, H. Groenewegen, H. W. Steinbusch, V. Visser-vandewalle et al., Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity, Prog. Neurobiol, vol.92, pp.533-557, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.08.007

D. Belin, A. C. Mar, J. W. Dalley, T. W. Robbins, and B. J. Everitt, High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking, Science, vol.320, pp.1352-1355, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1158136

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2478705?pdf=render

N. Broos, L. Diergaarde, A. N. Schoffelmeer, T. Pattij, D. Vries et al., Trait impulsive choice predicts resistance to extinction and propensity to relapse to cocaine seeking: a bidirectional investigation, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, pp.1377-1386, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/npp.2011.323

URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2011323.pdf

S. Carnicella, G. Drui, S. Boulet, C. Carcenac, M. Favier et al., Implication of dopamine D3 receptor activation in the reversion of Parkinson's disease-related motivational deficits, Transl. Psychiatry, vol.4, p.401, 2014.

M. M. Carvalho, F. L. Campos, M. Marques, C. Soares-cunha, N. Kokras et al., Effect of levodopa on reward and impulsivity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, Front. Behav. Neurosci, vol.11, p.145, 2017.

M. A. Cenci, V. Francardo, S. S. O'sullivan, and H. S. Lindgren, Rodent models of impulsive-compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: How far have we reached?, Neurobiol. Dis, vol.82, pp.561-573, 2015.

A. Dagher and T. W. Robbins, Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease, Neuron, vol.61, pp.502-510, 2009.

J. W. Dalley and T. W. Robbins, Fractionating impulsivity: neuropsychiatric implications, Nat. Rev. Neurosci, vol.18, pp.158-171, 2017.

J. W. Dalley and J. P. Roiser, Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity, Neuroscience, vol.215, pp.42-58, 2012.

C. Delaville, P. D. Deurwaerdere, and A. Benazzouz, Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease, Front. Syst. Neurosci, vol.5, p.31, 2011.

G. Drui, S. Carnicella, C. Carcenac, M. Favier, A. Bertrand et al., Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons accounts for the motivational and affective deficits in Parkinson's disease, Mol. Psychiatry, vol.19, pp.358-367, 2014.

S. B. Dunnett, A. Heuer, M. Lelos, S. P. Brooks, and A. E. Rosser, Bilateral striatal lesions disrupt performance in an operant delayed reinforcement task in rats, Brain Res. Bull, vol.88, pp.251-260, 2012.

M. Engeln, S. Ansquer, E. Dugast, E. Bezard, D. Belin et al., Multi-facetted impulsivity following nigral degeneration and dopamine replacement therapy, Neuropharmacology, vol.109, pp.69-77, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01331676

J. L. Evenden and C. N. Ryan, The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement, Psychopharmacology, vol.128, pp.161-170, 1996.

M. Favier, C. Carcenac, G. Drui, Y. Vachez, S. Boulet et al., Implication of dorsostriatal D3 receptors in motivational processes: a potential target for neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Sci. Rep, vol.7, p.41589, 2017.

M. Favier, T. Duran, C. Carcenac, G. Drui, M. Savasta et al., Pramipexole reverses Parkinson's disease-related motivational deficits in rats, Mov. Disord, vol.29, pp.912-920, 2014.

J. L. Houeto, R. Magnard, J. W. Dalley, D. Belin, and S. Carnicella, Trait impulsivity and anhedonia: two gateways for the development of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease? Front, Psychiatry, vol.7, p.91, 2016.

A. A. Kehagia, C. R. Housden, R. Regenthal, R. A. Barker, U. Muller et al., Targeting impulsivity in Parkinson's disease using atomoxetine, Brain, vol.137, 1986.

T. R. Levine and C. R. Hullett, Eta squared, partial eta squared and misreporting of effect size in communication research, Hum. Commu. Res, vol.28, pp.612-625, 2002.

R. Magnard, Y. Vachez, C. Carcenac, P. Krack, O. David et al., What can rodent models tell us about apathy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease?, Transl. Psychiatry, vol.6, p.753, 2016.

A. Maillet, P. Krack, E. Lhommee, E. Metereau, H. Klinger et al., The prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in apathy, anxiety and depression in de novo Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.139, pp.2486-2502, 2016.

, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | www.frontiersin.org, vol.12, p.312, 2018.

A. C. Mar and T. W. Robbins, Delay discounting and impulsive choice in the rat, Curr. Protoc. Neurosci, vol.39, 2007.

M. Milenkova, B. Mohammadi, K. Kollewe, C. Schrader, A. Fellbrich et al., Intertemporal choice in Parkinson's disease, Mov. Disord, vol.26, 2004.

J. E. Murray, A. Belin-rauscent, M. Simon, C. Giuliano, M. Benoit-marand et al., Basolateral and central amygdala differentially recruit and maintain dorsolateral striatum-dependent cocaine-seeking habits, Nat. Commun, vol.6, p.10088, 2015.

J. Myerson, L. Green, and M. Warusawitharana, Area under the curve as a measure of discounting, J. Exp. Anal. Behav, vol.76, pp.76-235, 2001.

A. Nieoullon and A. Coquerel, Dopamine: a key regulator to adapt action, emotion, motivation and cognition, Curr. Opin. Neurol, vol.16, issue.2, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00306939

A. L. Odum, Delay discounting: I'm a k, you're a k, J. Exp. Anal. Behav, vol.96, pp.427-439, 2011.

G. Paxinos and C. Watson, The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, 1998.

S. L. Rokosik and T. C. Napier, Pramipexole-induced increased probabilistic discounting: comparison between a rodent model of Parkinson's disease and controls, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, pp.1397-1408, 2012.

A. Samii, J. G. Nutt, and B. R. Ransom, Parkinson's disease, Lancet, vol.363, pp.1783-1793, 2004.

M. Sierra, S. Carnicella, A. P. Strafella, A. Bichon, E. Lhommee et al., Apathy and impulse control disorders: yin and yang of dopamine dependent behaviors, J. Parkinsons. Dis, vol.5, pp.625-636, 2015.
DOI : 10.3233/jpd-150535

M. J. Simon, A. Higuera-matas, D. Roura-martinez, M. Ucha, R. Santostoscano et al., Changes in D1 but not D2 dopamine or mu-opioid receptor expression in limbic and motor structures after lateral hypothalamus electrical self-stimulation: A quantitative autoradiographic study, Neurobiol. Learn Mem, vol.127, pp.17-26, 2016.

N. Sinha, S. Manohar, and M. Husain, Impulsivity and apathy in Parkinson's disease, J. Neuropsychol, vol.7, pp.255-283, 2013.

J. Tang and A. P. Strafella, The frontostriatal circuitry and behavioral complications in PD, Parkinsonism Relat. Disord, vol.18, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/s1353-8020(11)70033-5

S. E. Tedford, A. L. Persons, and T. C. Napier, Dopaminergic lesions of the dorsolateral striatum in rats increase delay discounting in an impulsive choice task, PLoS One, vol.10, 2015.

V. Voon and J. W. Dalley, Parkinson disease: impulsive choiceParkinson disease and dopaminergic therapy, Nat. Rev. Neurol, vol.7, pp.541-542, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.139

V. Voon, P. O. Fernagut, J. Wickens, C. Baunez, M. Rodriguez et al., Chronic dopaminergic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from dyskinesias to impulse control disorders, Lancet. Neurol, vol.8, pp.1140-1149, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70287-x

V. Voon, A. R. Mehta, and M. Hallett, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances, Curr. Opin. Neurol, vol.24, pp.324-330, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/wco.0b013e3283489687

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3154756?pdf=render

D. Weintraub, J. Koester, M. N. Potenza, A. D. Siderowf, M. Stacy et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients, Arch. Neurol, vol.67, pp.589-595, 2010.

Z. Ye, E. Altena, C. Nombela, C. R. Housden, H. Maxwell et al., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition modulates response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.137, pp.1145-1155, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/brain/awu032

URL : https://academic.oup.com/brain/article-pdf/137/4/1145/13799710/awu032.pdf

D. Aarsland, K. Bronnick, G. Alves, O. B. Tysnes, K. F. Pedersen et al., The spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with early untreated Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.80, pp.928-930, 2009.

D. Aarsland, J. P. Larsen, N. G. Lim, C. Janvin, K. Karlsen et al., Range of neuropsychiatric disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.67, pp.492-496, 1999.

D. Aarsland, L. Marsh, and A. Schrag, Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.24, pp.2175-2186, 2009.

D. Aarsland, S. Pahlhagen, C. G. Ballard, U. Ehrt, and P. Svenningsson, Depression in Parkinson disease--epidemiology, mechanisms and management, Nat Rev Neurol, vol.8, pp.35-47, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.189

E. Aarts, R. C. Helmich, M. J. Janssen, W. J. Oyen, B. R. Bloem et al., Aberrant reward processing in Parkinson's disease is associated with dopamine cell loss, Neuroimage, vol.59, pp.3339-3346, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.073

E. Aarts, M. Van-holstein, and R. Cools, Striatal Dopamine and the Interface between Motivation and Cognition, Front Psychol, vol.2, p.163, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00163

URL : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00163/pdf

A. R. Abela, S. D. Dougherty, E. D. Fagen, C. J. Hill, and Y. Chudasama, Inhibitory control deficits in rats with ventral hippocampal lesions, Cereb Cortex, vol.23, pp.1396-1409, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhs121

URL : https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article-pdf/23/6/1396/1189346/bhs121.pdf

J. E. Aberman and J. D. Salamone, Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletions make rats more sensitive to high ratio requirements but do not impair primary food reinforcement, Neuroscience, vol.92, pp.545-552, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/s0306-4522(99)00004-4

J. E. Aberman, S. J. Ward, and J. D. Salamone, Effects of dopamine antagonists and accumbens dopamine depletions on time-constrained progressive-ratio performance, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.61, pp.341-348, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/s0091-3057(98)00112-9

A. Acheson, A. M. Farrar, M. Patak, K. A. Hausknecht, A. K. Kieres et al., Nucleus accumbens lesions decrease sensitivity to rapid changes in the delay to reinforcement, Behav Brain Res, vol.173, pp.217-228, 2006.

A. R. Adamantidis, H. C. Tsai, B. Boutrel, F. Zhang, G. D. Stuber et al., Optogenetic interrogation of dopaminergic modulation of the multiple phases of reward-seeking behavior, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.10829-10835, 2011.

D. Adams, INSTRUMENTAL RESPONDING FOLLOWING REINFORCER DEVALUATION, Quaterly journal of experimental psychology, vol.33, pp.109-121, 1981.
DOI : 10.1080/14640748108400816

W. K. Adams, C. Vonder-haar, M. Tremblay, P. J. Cocker, M. M. Silveira et al., Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Selectively Decreases Risky Choice in Risk-Preferring Rats, 2017.

W. Adriani, F. Boyer, L. Gioiosa, S. Macri, J. L. Dreyer et al., Increased impulsive behavior and risk proneness following lentivirus-mediated dopamine transporter over-expression in rats' nucleus accumbens, Neuroscience, vol.159, pp.47-58, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.11.042

Y. Agid, Parkinson's disease: some physiopathologic aspects and clinical practice, Rev Prat, vol.39, pp.641-646, 1989.

Y. Agid, M. Ruberg, B. Dubois, J. Agid, and F. , Biochemical substrates of mental disturbances in Parkinson's disease. <None Specified>, pp.211-218, 1984.

Y. Agid, M. Ruberg, B. Dubois, and F. Javoy-agid, Biochemical substrates of mental disturbances in Parkinson's disease, Adv Neurol, vol.40, pp.211-218, 1984.

L. Agnoli, C. , and M. , Synergistic interaction of dopamine D(1) and glutamate Nmethyl-D-aspartate receptors in the rat dorsal striatum controls attention, Neuroscience, vol.185, pp.39-49, 2011.

J. H. Ahn, T. Mcavoy, S. V. Rakhilin, A. Nishi, P. Greengard et al., Protein kinase A activates protein phosphatase 2A by phosphorylation of the B56delta subunit, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.2979-2984, 2007.

J. H. Ahn, J. Y. Sung, T. Mcavoy, A. Nishi, V. Janssens et al., The B''/PR72 subunit mediates Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 by protein phosphatase 2A, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.9876-9881, 2007.

G. Ainslie, Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control, Psychol Bull, vol.82, pp.463-496, 1975.
DOI : 10.1037/h0076860

O. Aizman, H. Brismar, P. Uhlen, E. Zettergren, A. I. Levey et al., Anatomical and physiological evidence for D1 and D2 dopamine receptor colocalization in neostriatal neurons, Nat Neurosci, vol.3, pp.226-230, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/72929

M. Al-khaled, M. Heldmann, I. Bolstorff, J. Hagenah, and T. F. Munte, Intertemporal choice in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.21, pp.1330-1335, 2015.

R. L. Albin, A. B. Young, and J. B. Penney, The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders, Trends Neurosci, vol.12, pp.366-375, 1989.

R. L. Albin, A. B. Young, and J. B. Penney, The functional anatomy of disorders of the basal ganglia, Trends Neurosci, vol.18, pp.63-64, 1995.

F. Alcaraz, A. R. Marchand, G. Courtand, E. Coutureau, and M. Wolff, Parallel inputs from the mediodorsal thalamus to the prefrontal cortex in the rat, Eur J Neurosci, vol.44, pp.1972-1986, 2016.

L. R. Aleksandrova, M. C. Creed, P. J. Fletcher, D. S. Lobo, C. Hamani et al., Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases premature responding in a rat gambling task, Behav Brain Res, vol.245, pp.76-82, 2013.

G. E. Alexander and M. D. Crutcher, Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing, Trends Neurosci, vol.13, pp.266-271, 1990.

G. E. Alexander, M. R. Delong, and P. L. Strick, Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex, Annu Rev Neurosci, vol.9, pp.357-381, 1986.

S. Almanzar, M. I. Zapata-vega, and J. A. Raya, Dopamine agonist-induced impulse control disorders in a patient with prolactinoma, Psychosomatics, vol.54, pp.387-391, 2013.

C. A. Altar and K. Hauser, Topography of substantia nigra innervation by D1 receptorcontaining striatal neurons, Brain Res, vol.410, pp.1-11, 1987.

P. Ambermoon, A. Carter, W. D. Hall, N. N. Dissanayaka, and J. D. Sullivan, Impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopamine replacement therapy: evidence and implications for the addictions field, Addiction, vol.106, pp.283-293, 2011.

J. A. Angulo, H. Coirini, M. Ledoux, and M. Schumacher, Regulation by dopaminergic neurotransmission of dopamine D2 mRNA and receptor levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the rat, Brain Res Mol Brain Res, vol.11, pp.161-166, 1991.

S. Ansquer, A. Belin-rauscent, E. Dugast, T. Duran, I. Benatru et al., Atomoxetine decreases vulnerability to develop compulsivity in high impulsive rats, Biol Psychiatry, vol.75, pp.825-832, 2014.

F. Antonelli, J. H. Ko, J. Miyasaki, A. E. Lang, S. Houle et al., Dopamine-agonists and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease: impulsive choices vs. impulsive actions, Hum Brain Mapp, vol.35, pp.2499-2506, 2014.

F. Antonelli, N. Ray, and A. P. Strafella, Impulsivity and Parkinson's disease: more than just disinhibition, J Neurol Sci, vol.310, pp.202-207, 2011.

, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, APA, 2013.

I. Aracil-bolanos and A. P. Strafella, Molecular imaging and neural networks in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.22, pp.101-105, 2016.

C. Ardouin, I. Chereau, P. M. Llorca, E. Lhommee, F. Durif et al., , 2009.

, Rev Neurol (Paris), vol.165, pp.845-856

M. A. Ariano and D. R. Sibley, Dopamine receptor distribution in the rat CNS: elucidation using anti-peptide antisera directed against D1A and D3 subtypes, Brain Res, vol.649, pp.95-110, 1994.

M. A. Ariano, J. Wang, K. L. Noblett, E. R. Larson, and D. R. Sibley, Cellular distribution of the rat D1B receptor in central nervous system using anti-receptor antisera, Brain Res, vol.746, pp.141-150, 1997.

M. A. Ariano, J. Wang, K. L. Noblett, E. R. Larson, and D. R. Sibley, Cellular distribution of the rat D4 dopamine receptor protein in the CNS using anti-receptor antisera, Brain Res, vol.752, pp.26-34, 1997.

B. N. Armbruster, X. Li, M. H. Pausch, S. Herlitze, and B. L. Roth, Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.5163-5168, 2007.

A. L. Auclair, J. Besnard, A. Newman-tancredi, and R. Depoortere, The five choice serial reaction time task: comparison between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats on acquisition of task, and sensitivity to phencyclidine, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.92, pp.363-369, 2009.

P. J. Baarendse and L. J. Vanderschuren, Dissociable effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors on distinct forms of impulsive behavior in rats, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.219, pp.313-326, 2012.

M. R. Bailey, E. H. Simpson, and P. D. Balsam, Neural substrates underlying effort, time, and risk-based decision making in motivated behavior, Neurobiol Learn Mem, vol.133, pp.233-256, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.07.015

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5007005?pdf=render

P. M. Baker, T. Jhou, B. Li, M. Matsumoto, S. J. Mizumori et al., The Lateral Habenula Circuitry: Reward Processing and Cognitive Control, J Neurosci, vol.36, pp.11482-11488, 2016.
DOI : 10.1523/jneurosci.2350-16.2016

URL : http://www.jneurosci.org/content/jneuro/36/45/11482.full.pdf

, Bibliographie 189

B. Ballanger, B. Ballanger, T. Van-eimeren, E. Moro, A. M. Lozano et al., Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and impulsivity: release your horses, Ann Neurol, vol.66, pp.817-824, 2009.

B. W. Balleine and A. Dickinson, Goal-directed instrumental action: contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates, Neuropharmacology, vol.37, pp.407-419, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/s0028-3908(98)00033-1

B. Ballion, F. Frenois, C. L. Zold, J. Chetrit, M. G. Murer et al., D2 receptor stimulation, but not D1, restores striatal equilibrium in a rat model of Parkinsonism, Neurobiol Dis, vol.35, pp.376-384, 2009.

I. Bancos, M. R. Nannenga, J. M. Bostwick, M. H. Silber, D. Erickson et al., Impulse control disorders in patients with dopamine agonist-treated prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a case-control study, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol.80, pp.863-868, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/cen.12375

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4136510?pdf=render

J. L. Banko, M. Merhav, E. Stern, N. Sonenberg, K. Rosenblum et al., Behavioral alterations in mice lacking the translation repressor 4E-BP2, Neurobiol Learn Mem, vol.87, pp.248-256, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nlm.2006.08.012

J. L. Banko, F. Poulin, L. Hou, C. T. Demaria, N. Sonenberg et al., The translation repressor 4E-BP2 is critical for eIF4F complex formation, synaptic plasticity, and memory in the hippocampus, J Neurosci, vol.25, pp.9581-9590, 2005.

S. Barak, S. Ben-hamida, Y. Quinn, J. Neasta, V. Kharazia et al., Disruption of alcohol-related memories by mTORC1 inhibition prevents relapse, Nature Neuroscience, vol.16, pp.1111-1117, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nn.3439

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3725202?pdf=render

A. Bari, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, The application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task for the assessment of visual attentional processes and impulse control in rats, Nat Protoc, vol.3, pp.759-767, 2008.

D. J. Barker, D. H. Root, S. Zhang, and M. Morales, Multiplexed neurochemical signaling by neurons of the ventral tegmental area, J Chem Neuroanat, vol.73, pp.33-42, 2016.

P. Barone, Neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease: beyond dopamine, Eur J Neurol, vol.17, pp.364-376, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02900.x

P. Barone, W. Poewe, S. Albrecht, C. Debieuvre, D. Massey et al., Pramipexole for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Lancet Neurol, vol.9, pp.573-580, 2010.

P. Barone, L. Scarzella, R. Marconi, A. Antonini, L. Morgante et al., Pramipexole versus sertraline in the treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease: a national multicenter parallel-group randomized study, J Neurol, vol.253, pp.601-607, 2006.

M. M. Barrus and C. A. Winstanley, Dopamine D3 Receptors Modulate the Ability of Win-Paired Cues to Increase Risky Choice in a Rat Gambling Task, J Neurosci, vol.36, pp.785-794, 2016.

K. Basar, T. Sesia, H. Groenewegen, H. W. Steinbusch, V. Visser-vandewalle et al., Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity, Prog Neurobiol, vol.92, pp.533-557, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.08.007

M. A. Basso and P. J. May, Circuits for Action and Cognition: A View from the Superior Colliculus, Annu Rev Vis Sci, vol.3, pp.197-226, 2017.

J. Bastiaens, B. J. Dorfman, P. J. Christos, and M. J. Nirenberg, Prospective cohort study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.28, pp.327-333, 2013.

M. F. Bastide, W. G. Meissner, B. Picconi, S. Fasano, P. O. Fernagut et al., Pathophysiology of L-dopa-induced motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease, Prog Neurobiol, vol.132, pp.96-168, 2015.

C. Baunez and T. W. Robbins, Bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus induce multiple deficits in an attentional task in rats, Eur J Neurosci, vol.9, pp.2086-2099, 1997.

J. Bearn, A. Evans, M. Kelleher, K. Turner, and A. Lees, Recognition of a dopamine replacement therapy dependence syndrome in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study, Drug Alcohol Depend, vol.76, pp.305-310, 2004.

J. M. Beaulieu, T. Del&apos;guidice, T. D. Sotnikova, M. Lemasson, and R. R. Gainetdinov, Beyond cAMP: The Regulation of Akt and GSK3 by Dopamine Receptors, Front Mol Neurosci, vol.4, p.38, 2011.

J. M. Beaulieu and R. R. Gainetdinov, The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors, Pharmacol Rev, vol.63, pp.182-217, 2011.

J. M. Beaulieu, T. D. Sotnikova, S. Marion, R. J. Lefkowitz, R. R. Gainetdinov et al., An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior, Cell, vol.122, pp.261-273, 2005.

J. M. Beaulieu, T. D. Sotnikova, W. D. Yao, L. Kockeritz, J. R. Woodgett et al., Lithium antagonizes dopamine-dependent behaviors mediated by an AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling cascade, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.101, pp.5099-5104, 2004.

J. M. Beaulieu, E. Tirotta, T. D. Sotnikova, B. Masri, A. Salahpour et al., Regulation of Akt signaling by D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in vivo, J Neurosci, vol.27, pp.881-885, 2007.

A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, A. , and S. W. , Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex, Cognition, vol.50, pp.7-15, 1994.

A. Bechara, H. Damasio, D. Tranel, and A. R. Damasio, Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy, Science, vol.275, pp.1293-1295, 1997.

J. T. Beckley, S. Laguesse, K. Phamluong, N. Morisot, S. A. Wegner et al., The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons, The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.36, pp.701-713, 2016.

R. M. Beckstead, V. B. Domesick, and W. J. Nauta, Efferent connections of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat, Brain Res, vol.175, pp.191-217, 1979.

R. M. Beckstead and K. S. Kersey, Immunohistochemical demonstration of differential substance P-, met-enkephalin-, and glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-containing cell body and axon distributions in the corpus striatum of the cat, J Comp Neurol, vol.232, pp.481-498, 1985.

D. Belin, V. Deroche-gamonet, and M. Jaber, Cocaine-induced sensitization is associated with altered dynamics of transcriptional responses of the dopamine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine D2 receptors in C57Bl/6J mice, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.193, pp.567-578, 2007.

D. Belin, A. C. Mar, J. W. Dalley, T. W. Robbins, and B. J. Everitt, High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking, Science, vol.320, pp.1352-1355, 2008.

A. Belin-rauscent, M. L. Daniel, M. Puaud, B. Jupp, S. Sawiak et al., From impulses to maladaptive actions: the insula is a neurobiological gate for the development of compulsive behavior, Mol Psychiatry, vol.21, pp.491-499, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01573811

A. R. Bentivoglio and M. Morelli, The organization and circuits of mesencephalicdopaminergic neurons and the distribution of dopamine receptors in the brain, Handbook of Chemical neuroanatomy, 2005.

H. W. Berendse, Y. Galis-de-graaf, and H. J. Groenewegen, Topographical organization and relationship with ventral striatal compartments of prefrontal corticostriatal projections in the rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.316, pp.314-347, 1992.

D. Berg, R. B. Postuma, C. H. Adler, B. R. Bloem, P. Chan et al., MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease, vol.30, pp.1600-1611, 2015.

C. Bergson, L. Mrzljak, M. S. Lidow, P. S. Goldman-rakic, and R. Levenson, Characterization of subtype-specific antibodies to the human D5 dopamine receptor: studies in primate brain and transfected mammalian cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.92, pp.3468-3472, 1995.

C. Bergson, L. Mrzljak, J. F. Smiley, M. Pappy, R. Levenson et al., Regional, cellular, and subcellular variations in the distribution of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in primate brain, J Neurosci, vol.15, pp.7821-7836, 1995.

J. D. Berke, What does dopamine mean?, Nat Neurosci, vol.21, pp.787-793, 2018.
DOI : 10.1038/s41593-018-0152-y

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358212

K. C. Berridge, The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.191, pp.391-431, 2007.

K. C. Berridge and M. L. Kringelbach, Pleasure systems in the brain, Neuron, vol.86, pp.646-664, 2015.

K. C. Berridge, I. L. Venier, R. , and T. E. , Taste reactivity analysis of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced aphagia: implications for arousal and anhedonia hypotheses of dopamine function, Behav Neurosci, vol.103, pp.36-45, 1989.

M. J. Berridge, Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling mechanisms, Biochim Biophys Acta, vol.1793, pp.933-940, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.10.005

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.10.005

J. Bertran-gonzalez, C. Bosch, M. Maroteaux, M. Matamales, D. Herve et al., Opposing patterns of signaling activation in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing striatal neurons in response to cocaine and haloperidol, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.5671-5685, 2008.

J. Bertran-gonzalez, K. Hakansson, A. Borgkvist, T. Irinopoulou, K. Brami-cherrier et al., Histone H3 phosphorylation is under the opposite tonic control of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatopallidal neurons, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.34, pp.1710-1720, 2009.

J. Bertran-gonzalez, D. Herve, J. A. Girault, and E. Valjent, What is the Degree of Segregation between Striatonigral and Striatopallidal Projections?, Front Neuroanat, vol.4, 2010.

M. Besson, D. Belin, R. Mcnamara, D. E. Theobald, A. Castel et al., Dissociable control of impulsivity in rats by dopamine d2/3 receptors in the core and shell subregions of the nucleus accumbens, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.35, pp.560-569, 2010.

M. Besson, Y. Pelloux, R. Dilleen, D. E. Theobald, A. Lyon et al., Cocaine modulation of frontostriatal expression of Zif268, D2, and 5-HT2c receptors in high and low impulsive rats, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.38, pp.1963-1973, 2013.

C. Beste, C. Saft, J. Andrich, T. Muller, R. Gold et al., Time processing in Huntington's disease: a group-control study, PLoS One, vol.2, 1263.

G. Bezzina, T. H. Cheung, K. Asgari, C. L. Hampson, S. Body et al., Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.195, pp.71-84, 2007.

G. Bezzina, T. H. Cheung, S. Body, J. F. Deakin, I. M. Anderson et al., Quantitative analysis of the effect of lesions of the subthalamic nucleus on intertemporal choice: further evidence for enhancement of the incentive value of food reinforcers, Behav Pharmacol, vol.20, pp.437-446, 2009.

J. A. Bibb, G. L. Snyder, A. Nishi, Z. Yan, L. Meijer et al., Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 by Cdk5 modulates dopamine signalling in neurons, Nature, vol.402, pp.669-671, 1999.

A. Biever, J. Boubaker-vitre, L. Cutando, I. Gracia-rubio, M. Costa-mattioli et al., Repeated Exposure to D-Amphetamine Decreases Global Protein Synthesis and Regulates the Translation of a Subset of mRNAs in the Striatum, Front Mol Neurosci, vol.9, 2017.

A. Biever, E. Valjent, and E. Puighermanal, Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function, Front Mol Neurosci, vol.8, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02064365

A. Biever, E. Valjent, and E. Puighermanal, Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation in the Nervous System: From Regulation to Function, Front Mol Neurosci, vol.8, p.75, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02064365

J. Billieux, L. Rochat, and M. Van-der-linden, L'impulsivité: ses facettes, son évaluation et son expression clinique, 2014.

W. Birkmayer and O. Hornykiewicz, , 1961.

, Wien Klin Wochenschr, vol.73, pp.787-788

J. M. Birrell and V. J. Brown, Medial frontal cortex mediates perceptual attentional set shifting in the rat, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.4320-4324, 2000.

G. B. Bissonette, G. J. Martins, T. M. Franz, E. S. Harper, G. Schoenbaum et al., Double dissociation of the effects of medial and orbital prefrontal cortical lesions on attentional and affective shifts in mice, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.11124-11130, 2008.

A. Bjorklund and S. B. Dunnett, Dopamine neuron systems in the brain: an update, Trends Neurosci, vol.30, pp.194-202, 2007.

R. Bock, J. H. Shin, A. R. Kaplan, A. Dobi, E. Markey et al., Strengthening the accumbal indirect pathway promotes resilience to compulsive cocaine use, Nat Neurosci, vol.16, pp.632-638, 2013.

L. Boekhoudt, E. S. Voets, J. P. Flores-dourojeanni, M. C. Luijendijk, L. J. Vanderschuren et al., Chemogenetic Activation of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Affects Attention, but not Impulsivity, in the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task in Rats, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.42, pp.1315-1325, 2017.

L. Boekhoudt, E. C. Wijbrans, J. H. Man, M. C. Luijendijk, J. W. De-jong et al., Enhancing excitability of dopamine neurons promotes motivational behaviour through increased action initiation, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.28, pp.171-184, 2018.

A. J. Boender, J. W. De-jong, L. Boekhoudt, M. C. Luijendijk, G. Van-der-plasse et al., Combined use of the canine adenovirus-2 and DREADD-technology to activate specific neural pathways in vivo, PLoS One, vol.9, p.95392, 2014.

I. Boileau, A. Dagher, M. Leyton, K. Welfeld, L. Booij et al., Conditioned dopamine release in humans: a positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride study with amphetamine, J Neurosci, vol.27, pp.3998-4003, 2007.

I. Boileau, M. Guttman, P. Rusjan, J. R. Adams, S. Houle et al., Decreased binding of the D3 dopamine receptor-preferring ligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO in drug-naive Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.132, pp.1366-1375, 2009.

J. P. Bolam, J. J. Hanley, P. A. Booth, and M. D. Bevan, Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia, J Anat, vol.196, pp.527-542, 2000.

J. P. Bolam and Y. Smith, The GABA and substance P input to dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra of the rat, Brain Res, vol.529, pp.57-78, 1990.

J. P. Bolam and Y. Smith, The striatum and the globus pallidus send convergent synaptic inputs onto single cells in the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat: a double anterograde labelling study combined with postembedding immunocytochemistry for GABA, J Comp Neurol, vol.321, pp.456-476, 1992.

E. A. Bolan, B. Kivell, V. Jaligam, M. Oz, L. D. Jayanthi et al., D2 receptors regulate dopamine transporter function via an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2-dependent and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-independent mechanism, Mol Pharmacol, vol.71, pp.1222-1232, 2007.

A. Bonito-oliva, S. Pallottino, J. Bertran-gonzalez, J. A. Girault, E. Valjent et al., Haloperidol promotes mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via dopamine-and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa and inhibition of protein phosphatase-1, Neuropharmacology, vol.72, pp.197-203, 2013.

J. M. Bostwick, K. A. Hecksel, S. R. Stevens, J. H. Bower, and J. E. Ahlskog, Frequency of new-onset pathologic compulsive gambling or hypersexuality after drug treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease, Mayo Clin Proc, vol.84, pp.310-316, 2009.

V. Boulougouris, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, Effects of orbitofrontal, infralimbic and prelimbic cortical lesions on serial spatial reversal learning in the rat, Behav Brain Res, vol.179, pp.219-228, 2007.

M. L. Bouthenet, E. Souil, M. P. Martres, P. Sokoloff, B. Giros et al., Localization of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in the rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry: comparison with dopamine D2 receptor mRNA, Brain Res, vol.564, pp.203-219, 1991.

S. J. Boyson, P. Mcgonigle, and P. B. Molinoff, Quantitative autoradiographic localization of the D1 and D2 subtypes of dopamine receptors in rat brain, J Neurosci, vol.6, pp.3177-3188, 1986.

H. Braak, E. Ghebremedhin, U. Rub, H. Bratzke, D. Tredici et al., Stages in the development of Parkinson's disease-related pathology, Cell Tissue Res, vol.318, pp.121-134, 2004.

K. Brami-cherrier, E. Valjent, D. Herve, J. Darragh, J. C. Corvol et al., Parsing molecular and behavioral effects of cocaine in mitogen-and stress-activated protein kinase-1-deficient mice, J Neurosci, vol.25, pp.11444-11454, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00084993

M. Brancaccio, R. Enoki, C. N. Mazuski, J. Jones, J. A. Evans et al., Networkmediated encoding of circadian time: the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) from genes to neurons to circuits, and back, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.15192-15199, 2014.

M. Brand, K. Labudda, E. Kalbe, R. Hilker, D. Emmans et al., Decision-making impairments in patients with Parkinson's disease, Behav Neurol, vol.15, pp.77-85, 2004.

M. Brand, K. Labudda, and H. J. Markowitsch, Neuropsychological correlates of decision-making in ambiguous and risky situations, Neural Netw, vol.19, pp.1266-1276, 2006.

M. Brand, E. C. Recknor, F. Grabenhorst, and A. Bechara, Decisions under ambiguity and decisions under risk: correlations with executive functions and comparisons of two different gambling tasks with implicit and explicit rules, J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, vol.29, pp.86-99, 2007.

M. P. Broen, N. E. Narayen, M. L. Kuijf, N. N. Dissanayaka, and A. F. Leentjens, Prevalence of anxiety in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and metaanalysis, Mov Disord, vol.31, pp.1125-1133, 2016.

J. S. Brog, A. Salyapongse, A. Y. Deutch, and D. S. Zahm, The patterns of afferent innervation of the core and shell in the "accumbens" part of the rat ventral striatum: immunohistochemical detection of retrogradely transported fluorogold, J Comp Neurol, vol.338, pp.255-278, 1993.

E. S. Bromberg-martin, M. Matsumoto, and O. Hikosaka, Distinct tonic and phasic anticipatory activity in lateral habenula and dopamine neurons, Neuron, vol.67, pp.144-155, 2010.

E. S. Bromberg-martin, M. Matsumoto, and O. Hikosaka, Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting, Neuron, vol.68, pp.815-834, 2010.

E. S. Bromberg-martin, M. Matsumoto, H. Nakahara, and O. Hikosaka, Multiple timescales of memory in lateral habenula and dopamine neurons, Neuron, vol.67, pp.499-510, 2010.

N. Broos, L. Diergaarde, A. N. Schoffelmeer, T. Pattij, D. Vries et al., Trait impulsive choice predicts resistance to extinction and propensity to relapse to cocaine seeking: a bidirectional investigation, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, pp.1377-1386, 2012.

N. Broos, L. Schmaal, J. Wiskerke, L. Kostelijk, T. Lam et al., Organizing principles of cortical integration in the rat neostriatum: corticostriate map of the body surface is an ordered lattice of curved laminae and radial points, J Comp Neurol, vol.7, pp.468-488, 1998.

M. T. Brown, K. R. Tan, E. C. O&apos;connor, I. Nikonenko, D. Muller et al., Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning, Nature, vol.492, pp.452-456, 2012.

R. G. Brown and G. Pluck, Negative symptoms: the 'pathology' of motivation and goaldirected behaviour, Trends Neurosci, vol.23, pp.412-417, 2000.

C. V. Buhusi and W. H. Meck, Differential effects of methamphetamine and haloperidol on the control of an internal clock, Behav Neurosci, vol.116, pp.291-297, 2002.

C. V. Buhusi and W. H. Meck, What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.6, pp.755-765, 2005.

J. R. Bunzow, H. H. Van-tol, D. K. Grandy, P. Albert, J. Salon et al., Cloning and expression of a rat D2 dopamine receptor cDNA, Nature, vol.336, pp.783-787, 1988.

C. J. Burke and P. N. Tobler, Time, Not Size, Matters for Striatal Reward Predictions to Dopamine, Neuron, vol.91, pp.8-11, 2016.

D. A. Burke, H. G. Rotstein, and V. A. Alvarez, Striatal Local Circuitry: A New Framework for Lateral Inhibition, Neuron, vol.96, pp.267-284, 2017.

C. A. Carroll, J. Boggs, B. F. O&apos;donnell, A. Shekhar, and W. P. Hetrick, Temporal processing dysfunction in schizophrenia, Brain Cogn, vol.67, pp.150-161, 2008.

M. M. Carvalho, F. L. Campos, M. Marques, C. Soares-cunha, N. Kokras et al., Evidence for the heterotetrameric structure of the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor complex, Front Behav Neurosci, vol.11, pp.595-600, 2016.

A. Castane, D. E. Theobald, and T. W. Robbins, Selective lesions of the dorsomedial striatum impair serial spatial reversal learning in rats, Behav Brain Res, vol.210, pp.74-83, 2010.

A. Castrioto, S. Carnicella, V. Fraix, S. Chabardes, E. Moro et al., Reversing dopaminergic sensitization, Mov Disord, vol.32, pp.1679-1683, 2017.

A. Castrioto, S. Thobois, S. Carnicella, A. Maillet, and P. Krack, Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis, Mov Disord, vol.31, pp.1103-1113, 2016.

J. Castro-hernandez, D. Afonso-oramas, I. Cruz-muros, J. Salas-hernandez, P. Barroso-chinea et al., Prolonged treatment with pramipexole promotes physical interaction of striatal dopamine D3 autoreceptors with dopamine transporters to reduce dopamine uptake, Neurobiol Dis, vol.74, pp.325-335, 2015.

M. Cazorla, F. D. De-carvalho, M. O. Chohan, M. Shegda, N. Chuhma et al., Dopamine D2 receptors regulate the anatomical and functional balance of basal ganglia circuitry, Neuron, vol.81, pp.153-164, 2014.

M. Cazorla, U. J. Kang, and C. Kellendonk, Balancing the basal ganglia circuitry: a possible new role for dopamine D2 receptors in health and disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.895-903, 2015.

M. A. Cenci, V. Francardo, S. S. O&apos;sullivan, and H. S. Lindgren, Rodent models of impulsive-compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: How far have we reached, Neurobiol Dis, vol.82, pp.561-573, 2015.

M. O. Cevik, Effects of methamphetamine on duration discrimination, Behav Neurosci, vol.117, pp.774-784, 2003.

S. R. Chamberlain, N. Del-campo, J. Dowson, U. Muller, L. Clark et al., Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Biol Psychiatry, vol.62, pp.977-984, 2007.

D. J. Chandler, C. S. Lamperski, and B. D. Waterhouse, Identification and distribution of projections from monoaminergic and cholinergic nuclei to functionally differentiated subregions of prefrontal cortex, Brain Res, vol.1522, pp.38-58, 2013.

W. L. Chang, M. R. Breier, A. Yang, and N. R. Swerdlow, Disparate effects of pramipexole on locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating in Sprague-Dawley rats, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.99, pp.634-638, 2011.

K. R. Chaudhuri, D. G. Healy, and A. H. Schapira, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management, Lancet Neurol, vol.5, pp.235-245, 2006.

K. R. Chaudhuri, D. G. Healy, A. H. Schapira, and E. Institute-for-clinical, Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management, Lancet Neurol, vol.5, pp.235-245, 2006.

K. R. Chaudhuri, O. , and P. , The challenge of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Prog Brain Res, vol.184, pp.325-341, 2010.

K. R. Chaudhuri and A. H. Schapira, Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, pp.464-474, 2009.

J. Chen, X. F. Zheng, E. J. Brown, and S. L. Schreiber, Identification of an 11-kDa FKBP12-rapamycin-binding domain within the 289-kDa FKBP12-rapamycinassociated protein and characterization of a critical serine residue, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.92, pp.4947-4951, 1995.

R. Chen, C. P. Daining, H. Sun, R. Fraser, S. L. Stokes et al., Protein kinase Cbeta is a modulator of the dopamine D2 autoreceptor-activated trafficking of the dopamine transporter, J Neurochem, vol.125, pp.663-672, 2013.

M. F. Chesselet and A. M. Graybiel, Met-enkephalin-like and dynorphin-like immunoreactivities of the basal ganglia of the cat, Life Sci, vol.33, pp.37-40, 1983.

T. H. Cheung, R. N. Cardinal, Y. Chudasama, and J. L. Muir, Hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats, Visual attention in the rat: a role for the prelimbic cortex and thalamic nuclei, vol.6, pp.417-428, 2001.

Y. Chudasama, F. Passetti, S. E. Rhodes, D. Lopian, A. Desai et al., Dissociable aspects of performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task following lesions of the dorsal anterior cingulate, infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex in the rat: differential effects on selectivity, impulsivity and compulsivity, Behav Brain Res, vol.146, pp.105-119, 2003.

Y. Chudasama and T. W. Robbins, Dopaminergic modulation of visual attention and working memory in the rodent prefrontal cortex, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.29, pp.1628-1636, 2004.

Y. Chudasama and T. W. Robbins, Functions of frontostriatal systems in cognition: comparative neuropsychopharmacological studies in rats, monkeys and humans, 2006.

, Biol Psychol, vol.73, pp.19-38

N. Chuhma, K. F. Tanaka, R. Hen, and S. Rayport, Functional connectome of the striatal medium spiny neuron, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.1183-1192, 2011.

L. Churchill and P. W. Kalivas, A topographically organized gamma-aminobutyric acid projection from the ventral pallidum to the nucleus accumbens in the rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.345, pp.579-595, 1994.

R. Cilia, J. H. Ko, S. S. Cho, T. Van-eimeren, G. Marotta et al., Reduced dopamine transporter density in the ventral striatum of patients with Parkinson's disease and pathological gambling, Neurobiol Dis, vol.39, pp.98-104, 2010.

B. J. Ciliax, N. Nash, C. Heilman, R. Sunahara, A. Hartney et al., Dopamine D(5) receptor immunolocalization in rat and monkey brain, Synapse, vol.37, pp.125-145, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/1098-2396(200008)37:2<125::aid-syn7>3.3.co;2-z

L. A. Cingolani and Y. Goda, Actin in action: the interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic efficacy, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.9, pp.344-356, 2008.

K. L. Clark and B. Noudoost, The role of prefrontal catecholamines in attention and working memory, Front Neural Circuits, vol.8, p.33, 2014.

H. F. Clarke, G. J. Hill, T. W. Robbins, and A. C. Roberts, Dopamine, but not serotonin, regulates reversal learning in the marmoset caudate nucleus, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.4290-4297, 2011.

P. L. Clatworthy, S. J. Lewis, L. Brichard, Y. T. Hong, D. Izquierdo et al., Dopamine release in dissociable striatal subregions predicts the different effects of oral methylphenidate on reversal learning and spatial working memory, J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.4690-4696, 2009.

P. J. Cocker, K. Dinelle, R. Kornelson, V. Sossi, and C. A. Winstanley, Irrational choice under uncertainty correlates with lower striatal D(2/3) receptor binding in rats, J Neurosci, vol.32, pp.15450-15457, 2012.
DOI : 10.1523/jneurosci.0626-12.2012

URL : http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/44/15450.full.pdf

A. I. Cohen, R. D. Todd, S. Harmon, and K. L. Malley, Photoreceptors of mouse retinas possess D4 receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.89, pp.12093-12097, 1992.

V. Coizet, E. Comoli, G. W. Westby, R. , and P. , Phasic activation of substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area by chemical stimulation of the superior colliculus: an electrophysiological investigation in the rat, Eur J Neurosci, vol.17, pp.28-40, 2003.

B. J. Cole and T. W. Robbins, Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats: implications for theories of selective attention and arousal, Behav Brain Res, vol.33, pp.165-179, 1989.

E. Comoli, V. Coizet, J. Boyes, J. P. Bolam, N. S. Canteras et al., A direct projection from superior colliculus to substantia nigra for detecting salient visual events, Nat Neurosci, vol.6, pp.974-980, 2003.

R. Cools and M. Esposito, Inverted-U-shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control, Biol Psychiatry, vol.69, pp.113-125, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.03.028

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3111448?pdf=render

L. H. Corbit and P. H. Janak, Posterior dorsomedial striatum is critical for both selective instrumental and Pavlovian reward learning, Eur J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.1312-1321, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07153.x

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2914557?pdf=render

J. R. Cornelius, M. Tippmann-peikert, N. L. Slocumb, C. F. Frerichs, and M. H. Silber, Impulse control disorders with the use of dopaminergic agents in restless legs syndrome: a case-control study, Sleep, vol.33, pp.81-87, 2010.

J. C. Corvol, Addictions comportementales dans la maladie de Parkinson Bull. Acad. Natle Méd, vol.198, pp.1297-1308, 2014.

J. C. Corvol, F. Artaud, F. Cormier-dequaire, O. Rascol, F. Durif et al., Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.91, pp.189-201, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01912764

J. C. Corvol, J. M. Studler, J. S. Schonn, J. A. Girault, H. et al., Galpha(olf) is necessary for coupling D1 and A2a receptors to adenylyl cyclase in the striatum, J Neurochem, vol.76, pp.1585-1588, 2001.

M. Costa-mattioli and L. M. Monteggia, mTOR complexes in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, Nat Neurosci, vol.16, pp.1537-1543, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nn.3546

M. Costa-mattioli, W. S. Sossin, E. Klann, and N. Sonenberg, Translational control of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and memory, Neuron, vol.61, pp.10-26, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.055

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.055

J. T. Coull, Neural correlates of attention and arousal: insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology, Prog Neurobiol, vol.55, pp.343-361, 1998.

T. J. Crow, A map of the rat mesencephalon for electrical self-stimulation, Brain Res, vol.36, pp.265-273, 1972.

E. Cubo, J. Benito-leon, C. Coronell, D. Armesto, and A. S. Group, Clinical correlates of apathy in patients recently diagnosed with Parkinson's disease: the ANIMO study, Neuroepidemiology, vol.38, pp.48-55, 2012.

J. L. Cummings, Depression and Parkinson's disease: a review, Am J Psychiatry, vol.149, pp.443-454, 1992.

J. L. Cummings and D. L. Masterman, Depression in patients with Parkinson's disease, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.14, pp.711-718, 1999.

N. Cybulski and M. N. Hall, TOR complex 2: a signaling pathway of its own, Trends Biochem Sci, vol.34, pp.620-627, 2009.

C. A. Czeisler, J. F. Duffy, T. L. Shanahan, E. N. Brown, J. F. Mitchell et al., Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker, Science, vol.284, pp.2177-2181, 1999.

V. Czernecki, B. Pillon, J. L. Houeto, J. B. Pochon, R. Levy et al., Motivation, reward, and Parkinson's disease: influence of dopatherapy, Neuropsychologia, vol.40, pp.2257-2267, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/s0028-3932(02)00108-2

V. Czernecki, M. Schupbach, S. Yaici, R. Levy, E. Bardinet et al., Apathy following subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson disease: a dopamine responsive symptom, Mov Disord, vol.23, pp.964-969, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.21949

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00805452

C. Araujo, S. Body, S. Hampson, C. L. Langley, R. W. Deakin et al., Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: further observations with an adjustingdelay procedure, Behav Brain Res, vol.202, pp.272-277, 2009.

A. Dagher and T. W. Robbins, Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease, Neuron, vol.61, pp.502-510, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.01.031

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.01.031

A. Dahlstrom and K. Fuxe, Localization of monoamines in the lower brain stem, Experientia, vol.20, pp.398-399, 1964.

J. W. Dalley, R. N. Cardinal, and T. W. Robbins, Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions in rodents: neural and neurochemical substrates, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.28, pp.771-784, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.09.006

J. W. Dalley, B. J. Everitt, and T. W. Robbins, Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control, Neuron, vol.69, pp.680-694, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.01.020

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.01.020

J. W. Dalley, T. D. Fryer, L. Brichard, E. S. Robinson, D. E. Theobald et al., Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement, Science, vol.315, pp.1267-1270, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1137073

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc1892797?pdf=render

J. W. Dalley, A. C. Mar, D. Economidou, and T. W. Robbins, Neurobehavioral mechanisms of impulsivity: fronto-striatal systems and functional neurochemistry, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.90, pp.250-260, 2008.

J. W. Dalley and T. W. Robbins, Fractionating impulsivity: neuropsychiatric implications, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.18, pp.158-171, 2017.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn.2017.8

URL : https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/274846

J. W. Dalley and J. P. Roiser, Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity, Neuroscience, vol.215, pp.42-58, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.03.065

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.03.065

D. Dardou, L. Reyrolle, C. Chassain, and F. Durif, Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, Behav Brain Res, vol.332, pp.327-336, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01690913

, Bibliographie

M. Darna, J. J. Chow, J. R. Yates, R. J. Charnigo, J. S. Beckmann et al., Role of serotonin transporter function in rat orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice, Behav Brain Res, vol.293, pp.134-142, 2015.

J. H. Daruna and P. A. Barnes, The impulsive client: Theory, research, and treatment, J.J.L, pp.23-37, 1993.

P. De-camilli, D. Macconi, and A. Spada, Dopamine inhibits adenylate cyclase in human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas, Nature, vol.278, pp.252-254, 1979.

L. M. De-lau and M. M. Breteler, Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease, Lancet Neurol, vol.5, pp.525-535, 2006.

D. Mei, C. Ramos, M. Iitaka, C. Borrelli, and E. , Getting specialized: presynaptic and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors, Curr Opin Pharmacol, vol.9, pp.53-58, 2009.

L. De-visser, J. R. Homberg, M. Mitsogiannis, F. D. Zeeb, M. Rivalan et al., Rodent versions of the iowa gambling task: opportunities and challenges for the understanding of decision-making, Front Neurosci, vol.5, p.109, 2011.

A. Dearry, J. A. Gingrich, P. Falardeau, R. T. Fremeau, . Jr et al., Molecular cloning and expression of the gene for a human D1 dopamine receptor, Nature, vol.347, pp.72-76, 1990.

M. Decressac and A. Björklund, mTOR inhibition alleviates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.3, pp.13-17, 2013.

M. C. Defagot and M. C. Antonelli, Autoradiographic localization of the putative D4 dopamine receptor in rat brain, Neurochem Res, vol.22, pp.401-407, 1997.

M. C. Defagot, E. L. Malchiodi, M. J. Villar, and M. C. Antonelli, Distribution of D4 dopamine receptor in rat brain with sequence-specific antibodies, Brain Res Mol Brain Res, vol.45, pp.1-12, 1997.

C. Delaville, J. Chetrit, K. Abdallah, S. Morin, L. Cardoit et al., Emerging dysfunctions consequent to combined monoaminergic depletions in Parkinsonism, Neurobiol Dis, vol.45, pp.763-773, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.10.023

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01178540

C. Delaville, P. D. Deurwaerdere, and A. Benazzouz, Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease, Front Syst Neurosci, vol.5, p.31, 2011.

M. R. Delong, Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin, Trends Neurosci, vol.13, pp.281-285, 1990.

M. R. Delong, T. Wichmann, M. G. Den-brok, J. W. Van-dalen, W. A. Van-gool et al., Apathy in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and metaanalysis, Arch Neurol, vol.64, pp.759-769, 2007.

R. Dias, T. W. Robbins, and A. C. Roberts, Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts, Nature, vol.380, pp.69-72, 1996.

J. Diaz, D. Levesque, C. H. Lammers, N. Griffon, M. P. Martres et al., Phenotypical characterization of neurons expressing the dopamine D3 receptor in the rat brain, Neuroscience, vol.65, pp.731-745, 1995.

J. Diaz, C. Pilon, B. Le-foll, C. Gros, A. Triller et al., , 2000.

, Dopamine D3 receptors expressed by all mesencephalic dopamine neurons, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.8677-8684

A. Dickinson, Actions and habits: the development of behavioral autonomy, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond, vol.308, pp.67-78, 1985.

M. L. Dodd, K. J. Klos, J. H. Bower, Y. E. Geda, K. A. Josephs et al., Pathological gambling caused by drugs used to treat Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.62, pp.1377-1381, 2005.

E. Dommett, V. Coizet, C. D. Blaha, J. Martindale, V. Lefebvre et al., How visual stimuli activate dopaminergic neurons at short latency, Science, vol.307, pp.1476-1479, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00411010

J. P. Doucet, Y. Nakabeppu, P. J. Bedard, B. T. Hope, E. J. Nestler et al., Chronic alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission produce a persistent elevation of deltaFosB-like protein(s) in both the rodent and primate striatum, Eur J Neurosci, vol.8, pp.365-381, 1996.

D. Drapier, S. Drapier, P. Sauleau, C. Haegelen, S. Raoul et al., Does subthalamic nucleus stimulation induce apathy in Parkinson's disease?, J Neurol, vol.253, pp.1083-1091, 2006.

G. Drui, S. Carnicella, C. Carcenac, M. Favier, A. Bertrand et al., Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons accounts for the motivational and affective deficits in Parkinson's disease, Mol Psychiatry, 2014.

K. Dujardin, P. Sockeel, D. Devos, M. Delliaux, P. Krystkowiak et al., Characteristics of apathy in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.22, pp.778-784, 2007.

P. Durieux, B. Bearzatto, S. Guiducci, B. Waisman, A. Zoli et al., D2R striatopallidal neurons inhibit both locomotor and drug reward processes, Nature Neuroscience, vol.12, pp.393-395, 2009.

M. Dziedzicka-wasylewska, A. Faron-gorecka, J. Andrecka, A. Polit, M. Kusmider et al., Fluorescence studies reveal heterodimerization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the plasma membrane, Biochemistry, vol.45, pp.8751-8759, 2006.

D. M. Eagle, A. Bari, and T. W. Robbins, The neuropsychopharmacology of action inhibition: cross-species translation of the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.199, pp.439-456, 2008.

D. M. Eagle and C. Baunez, Is there an inhibitory-response-control system in the rat? Evidence from anatomical and pharmacological studies of behavioral inhibition, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.34, pp.50-72, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01384813

D. M. Eagle and T. W. Robbins, Lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex or nucleus accumbens core do not impair inhibitory control in rats performing a stop-signal reaction time task, Behav Brain Res, vol.146, pp.131-144, 2003.

F. Eblen and A. M. Graybiel, Highly restricted origin of prefrontal cortical inputs to striosomes in the macaque monkey, J Neurosci, vol.15, pp.5999-6013, 1995.

D. Economidou, D. E. Theobald, T. W. Robbins, B. J. Everitt, and J. W. Dalley, Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the five-choice serial accumbens, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, pp.2057-2066, 2012.

H. Ehringer and O. Hornykiewicz, Distribution of noradrenaline and dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) in the human brain and their behavior in diseases of the extrapyramidal system, 1960.

, Klin Wochenschr, vol.38, pp.1236-1239

R. Y. Eichler, Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat, Brain Research, vol.42, pp.201-206, 1972.

E. Erro, M. Lanciego, J. L. Gimenez-amaya, and J. M. , Re-examination of the thalamostriatal projections in the rat with retrograde tracers, Neurosci Res, vol.42, pp.45-55, 2002.

M. J. Eliason and L. C. Richman, The Continuous Performance Test in learning disabled and nondisabled children, J Learn Disabil, vol.20, pp.614-619, 1987.

R. Elliott, R. J. Dolan, and C. D. Frith, Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies, Cereb Cortex, vol.10, pp.308-317, 2000.

B. Elvevag, T. Mccormack, A. Gilbert, G. D. Brown, D. R. Weinberger et al., Duration judgements in patients with schizophrenia, Psychol Med, vol.33, pp.1249-1261, 2003.

M. Emre, What causes mental dysfunction in Parkinson's disease?, Mov Disord, vol.18, issue.6, pp.63-71, 2003.

M. Engeln, S. Ansquer, E. Dugast, E. Bezard, D. Belin et al., Multifacetted impulsivity following nigral degeneration and dopamine replacement therapy, Neuropharmacology, vol.109, pp.69-77, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.013

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01331676

A. H. Evans, R. Katzenschlager, D. Paviour, J. D. O&apos;sullivan, S. Appel et al., Punding in Parkinson's disease: its relation to the dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Mov Disord, vol.19, pp.397-405, 2004.

A. H. Evans and A. J. Lees, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.17, pp.393-398, 2004.

J. L. Evenden, Varieties of impulsivity, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.146, pp.348-361, 1999.

J. L. Evenden and C. N. Ryan, The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.128, pp.161-170, 1996.

R. Evens, Y. Stankevich, M. Dshemuchadse, A. Storch, M. Wolz et al., The impact of Parkinson's disease and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on reward processing, Neuropsychologia, vol.75, pp.11-19, 2015.

H. J. Eysenck, The biological basis of personnality, 1967.

S. B. Eysenck and H. J. Eysenck, Manual of the Eysenck Personnality Questionnaire, 1975.

J. H. Fallon and R. Y. Moore, Catecholamine innervation of the basal forebrain. IV. Topography of the dopamine projection to the basal forebrain and neostriatum, J Comp Neurol, vol.180, pp.545-580, 1978.

S. Fasano, A. D&apos;antoni, P. C. Orban, E. Valjent, E. Putignano et al., Ras-guanine nucleotidereleasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1) controls activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the striatum and long-term behavioral responses to cocaine, Biol Psychiatry, vol.66, pp.758-768, 2009.

M. Favier, C. Carcenac, G. Drui, Y. Vachez, S. Boulet et al., Implication of dorsostriatal D3 receptors in motivational processes: a potential target for neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease, Sci Rep, vol.7, p.41589, 2017.

M. Favier, T. Duran, C. Carcenac, G. Drui, M. Savasta et al., Pramipexole reverses Parkinson's disease-related motivational deficits in rats, Mov Disord, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.25837

C. C. Felder, F. Albrecht, G. M. Eisner, J. , and P. A. , The signal transducer for the dopamine-1 regulated sodium transport in renal cortical brush border membrane vesicles, Am J Hypertens, vol.3, pp.47-50, 1990.

A. C. Felicio, T. S. Moriyama, C. Godeiro-junior, M. C. Shih, M. Q. Hoexter et al., Higher dopamine transporter density in Parkinson's disease patients with depression, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.211, pp.27-31, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00213-010-1867-y

L. K. Fellows and M. J. Farah, Ventromedial frontal cortex mediates affective shifting in humans: evidence from a reversal learning paradigm, Brain, vol.126, pp.1830-1837, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/brain/awg180

URL : https://academic.oup.com/brain/article-pdf/126/8/1830/874895/awg180.pdf

T. R. Fenton and I. T. Gout, Fonctions and regulationof the 70kDa ribosomal S6 kinases, INt J Biochem Cell, vol.43, pp.47-59, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biocel.2010.09.018

A. B. Fernando, D. Economidou, D. E. Theobald, M. F. Zou, A. H. Newman et al., Modulation of high impulsivity and attentional performance in rats by selective direct and indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic receptor agonists, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.219, pp.341-352, 2012.

C. Ferrada, S. Ferre, V. Casado, A. Cortes, Z. Justinova et al., Interactions between histamine H3 and dopamine D2 receptors and the implications for striatal function, Neuropharmacology, vol.55, pp.190-197, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.05.008

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2435196?pdf=render

C. Ferrada, E. Moreno, V. Casado, G. Bongers, A. Cortes et al., Marked changes in signal transduction upon heteromerization of dopamine D1 and histamine H3 receptors, Br J Pharmacol, vol.157, pp.64-75, 2009.

S. Ferre, J. Bonaventura, W. Zhu, C. Hatcher-solis, J. Taura et al., Essential Control of the Function of the Striatopallidal Neuron by Pre-coupled Complexes of Adenosine A2A-Dopamine D2 Receptor Heterotetramers and Adenylyl Cyclase, Front Pharmacol, vol.9, p.243, 2018.

S. Ferre, V. Casado, L. A. Devi, M. Filizola, R. Jockers et al., G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization revisited: functional and pharmacological perspectives, Pharmacol Rev, vol.66, pp.413-434, 2014.
DOI : 10.1124/pr.113.008052

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01067990

H. C. Fibiger, A. G. Phillips, and R. A. Clouston, Regulatory deficits after unilateral electrolytic or 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra, Am J Physiol, vol.225, pp.1282-1287, 1973.

H. C. Fibiger, A. G. Phillips, and A. P. Zis, Deficits in instrumental responding after 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigro-neostriatal dopaminergic projection, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.2, pp.87-96, 1974.

T. Fieblinger and M. A. Cenci, Zooming in on the small: the plasticity of striatal dendritic spines in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.484-493, 2015.

F. M. Filloux, J. K. Wamsley, and T. M. Dawson, Presynaptic and postsynaptic D1 dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal system of the rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study using the selective D1 antagonist, Brain Res, vol.408, pp.205-209, 1987.

J. S. Fink, D. R. Weaver, S. A. Rivkees, R. A. Peterfreund, A. E. Pollack et al., Molecular cloning of the rat A2 adenosine receptor: selective coexpression with D2 dopamine receptors in rat striatum, Brain Res Mol Brain Res, vol.14, pp.186-195, 1992.

C. Fiorentini, C. Busi, E. Gorruso, C. Gotti, P. Spano et al., Reciprocal regulation of dopamine D1 and D3 receptor function and trafficking by heterodimerization, Mol Pharmacol, vol.74, pp.59-69, 2008.
DOI : 10.1124/mol.107.043885

C. D. Fiorillo, W. T. Newsome, and W. Schultz, The temporal precision of reward prediction in dopamine neurons, Nat Neurosci, vol.11, pp.966-973, 2008.

C. S. Fishburn, D. Belleli, C. David, S. Carmon, and S. Fuchs, A novel short isoform of the D3 dopamine receptor generated by alternative splicing in the third cytoplasmic loop, J Biol Chem, vol.268, pp.5872-5878, 1993.

S. B. Floresco, S. Ghods-sharifi, C. Vexelman, and O. Magyar, Dissociable roles for the nucleus accumbens core and shell in regulating set shifting, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.2449-2457, 2006.

G. Fouriezos, P. Hansson, and R. A. Wise, Neuroleptic-induced attenuation of brain stimulation reward in rats, J Comp Physiol Psychol, vol.92, pp.661-671, 1978.

G. Fouriezos and R. A. Wise, Pimozide-induced extinction of intracranial selfstimulation: response patterns rule out motor or performance deficits, Brain Res, vol.103, pp.377-380, 1976.

M. J. Frank, J. Samanta, A. A. Moustafa, and S. J. Sherman, Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism, Science, vol.318, pp.1309-1312, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1146157

A. L. Frederick, H. Yano, P. Trifilieff, H. D. Vishwasrao, D. Biezonski et al., Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers, Mol Psychiatry, vol.20, pp.1373-1385, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/mp.2014.166

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4492915?pdf=render

D. L. Frederick, A. , and J. D. , Effects of selective dopamine D1- and D2-agonists and antagonists on timing performance in rats, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.53, pp.759-764, 1996.

D. Fredericks, J. C. Norton, C. Atchison, R. Schoenhaus, and M. W. Pill, Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease psychosis: a perspective on the challenges, treatments, and economic burden, Am J Manag Care, vol.23, pp.83-92, 2017.

B. S. Freeze, A. V. Kravitz, N. Hammack, J. D. Berke, and A. C. Kreitzer, Control of Basal Ganglia Output by Direct and Indirect Pathway Projection Neurons, The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.33, pp.18531-18539, 2013.

R. T. Fremeau, . Jr, G. E. Duncan, M. G. Fornaretto, A. Dearry et al., Localization of D1 dopamine receptor mRNA in brain supports a role in cognitive, affective, and neuroendocrine aspects of dopaminergic neurotransmission, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, pp.3772-3776, 1991.

J. H. Friedman, Punding on levodopa, Biol Psychiatry, vol.36, pp.350-351, 1994.

Y. Fu, Y. Yuan, G. Halliday, Z. Rusznak, C. Watson et al., A cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic analysis of the dopamine cell groups in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and retrorubral field in the mouse, Brain Struct Funct, vol.217, pp.591-612, 2012.

F. Fujiyama, J. Sohn, T. Nakano, T. Furuta, K. C. Nakamura et al., Exclusive and common targets of neostriatofugal projections of rat striosome neurons: a single neuron-tracing study using a viral vector, Eur J Neurosci, vol.33, pp.668-677, 2011.

F. Fujiyama, T. Unzai, K. Nakamura, S. Nomura, and T. Kaneko, Difference in organization of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses between patch and matrix compartments of rat neostriatum, Eur J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.2813-2824, 2006.

D. Gagnon, S. Petryszyn, M. G. Sanchez, C. Bories, J. M. Beaulieu et al., Striatal Neurons Expressing D1 and D2 Receptors are Morphologically Distinct and Differently Affected by Dopamine Denervation in Mice, Sci Rep, vol.7, pp.291-303, 2003.

D. A. Gallagher, S. S. O&apos;sullivan, A. H. Evans, A. J. Lees, and A. Schrag, Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: risk factors and differences from dopamine dysregulation. An analysis of published case series, Mov Disord, vol.22, pp.1757-1763, 2007.

D. A. Gallagher and A. Schrag, Psychosis, apathy, depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease, Neurobiol Dis, 2012.

G. Gangarossa, L. Ceolin, A. Paucard, M. Lerner-natoli, J. Perroy et al., Repeated stimulation of dopamine D1-like receptor and hyperactivation of mTOR signaling lead to generalized seizures, altered dentate gyrus plasticity, and memory deficits, Hippocampus, vol.24, pp.1466-1481, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01944940

G. Gangarossa, J. Espallergues, A. De-kerchove-d&apos;exaerde, S. El-mestikawy, C. R. Gerfen et al., Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens, Front Neural Circuits, vol.7, p.22, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01578440

G. Gangarossa, J. Perroy, E. ;. Valjent, J. Perroy, and E. Valjent, Combinatorial topography and cell-type specific regulation of the ERK pathway by dopaminergic agonists in the mouse striatum, Combinatorial topography andGangarossa, vol.218, pp.405-419, 2013.

X. Gao, K. Yuan, L. Cao, W. Yan, Y. Luo et al., AMPK signaling in the nucleus accumbens core mediates cue- induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, 2017.

M. P. Gardner, J. S. Conroy, M. H. Shaham, C. V. Styer, and G. Schoenbaum, Lateral Orbitofrontal Inactivation Dissociates Devaluation-Sensitive Behavior and Economic Choice, Neuron, vol.96, pp.1192-1203, 2017.

S. R. George, B. F. O&apos;dowd, and S. P. Lee, G-protein-coupled receptor oligomerization and its potential for drug discovery, Nat Rev Drug Discov, vol.1, pp.808-820, 2002.

. Gerfen and . Surmeier, Modulation of Striatal Projection Systems by Dopamine, Annu. Rev. Neurosci, vol.34, pp.441-466, 2011.

C. R. Gerfen, Molecular effects of dopamine on striatal-projection pathways, Trends Neurosci, vol.23, pp.64-70, 2000.

C. R. Gerfen, T. M. Engber, L. C. Mahan, Z. Susel, T. N. Chase et al., D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, Science, vol.250, pp.1429-1432, 1990.

D. C. German and K. F. Manaye, Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (nuclei A8, A9, and A10): three-dimensional reconstruction in the rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.331, pp.297-309, 1993.

M. Gesi, P. Soldani, F. S. Giorgi, A. Santinami, I. Bonaccorsi et al., The role of the locus coeruleus in the development of Parkinson's disease, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.24, pp.655-668, 2000.

S. Ghods-sharifi and S. B. Floresco, Differential effects on effort discounting induced by inactivations of the nucleus accumbens core or shell, Behav Neurosci, vol.124, pp.179-191, 2010.

S. Ghods-sharifi, J. R. St-onge, and S. B. Floresco, Fundamental contribution by the basolateral amygdala to different forms of decision making, J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.5251-5259, 2009.

C. S. Gibbs, D. R. Knighton, J. M. Sowadski, S. S. Taylor, and M. J. Zoller, Systematic mutational analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase identifies unregulated catalytic subunits and defines regions important for the recognition of the regulatory subunit, J Biol Chem, vol.267, pp.4806-4814, 1992.

J. A. Gingrich, C. , and M. G. , Recent advances in the molecular biology of dopamine receptors, Annu Rev Neurosci, vol.16, pp.299-321, 1993.

G. Giovannoni, J. D. O&apos;sullivan, K. Turner, A. J. Manson, and A. J. Lees, Hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation in patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine replacement therapies, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.68, pp.423-428, 2000.

J. A. Girault, Signaling in striatal neurons: the phosphoproteins of reward, addiction, and dyskinesia, Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci, vol.106, pp.33-62, 2012.

J. A. Girault, E. Valjent, J. Caboche, H. , and D. , ERK2: a logical AND gate critical for drug-induced plasticity?, Curr Opin Pharmacol, vol.7, pp.77-85, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00128883

B. Giros, P. Sokoloff, M. P. Martres, J. F. Riou, L. J. Emorine et al., Alternative splicing directs the expression of two D2 dopamine receptor isoforms, Nature, vol.342, pp.923-926, 1989.

A. M. Gotham, R. G. Brown, and C. D. Marsden, Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.49, pp.381-389, 1986.

M. Grall-bronnec, C. Victorri-vigneau, Y. Donnio, J. Leboucher, M. Rousselet et al., Dopamine Agonists and Impulse Control Disorders: A Complex Association, Drug Saf, vol.41, pp.19-75, 2018.

S. Granon, F. Passetti, K. L. Thomas, J. W. Dalley, B. J. Everitt et al., Enhanced and impaired attentional performance after infusion of D1 dopaminergic receptor agents into rat prefrontal cortex, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.1208-1215, 2000.

A. M. Graybiel, The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires, Neurobiol Learn Mem, vol.70, pp.119-136, 1998.

A. M. Graybiel, Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain, Annu Rev Neurosci, vol.31, pp.359-387, 2008.

L. Green and J. Myerson, A discounting framework for choice with delayed and probabilistic rewards, Psychol Bull, vol.130, pp.769-792, 2004.

C. M. Gremel and R. M. Costa, Orbitofrontal and striatal circuits dynamically encode the shift between goal-directed and habitual actions, Nat Commun, vol.4, 2013.

H. J. Groenewegen, E. Vermeulen-van-der-zee, A. Te-kortschot, and M. P. Witter, Organization of the projections from the subiculum to the ventral striatum in the rat. A study using anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, Neuroscience, vol.23, pp.103-120, 1987.

H. J. Groenewegen, C. I. Wright, A. V. Beijer, and P. Voorn, Convergence and segregation of ventral striatal inputs and outputs, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.877, pp.49-63, 1999.

J. Guiramand, J. P. Montmayeur, J. Ceraline, M. Bhatia, and E. Borrelli, Alternative splicing of the dopamine D2 receptor directs specificity of coupling to G-proteins, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00422122

, J Biol Chem, vol.270, pp.7354-7358

X. Guitart, G. Navarro, E. Moreno, H. Yano, N. S. Cai et al., Functional selectivity of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor oligomers: the dopamine D1-D3 receptor heterotetramer, Mol Pharmacol, vol.86, pp.417-429, 2014.

Q. Guo, D. Wang, X. He, Q. Feng, R. Lin et al., Whole-brain mapping of inputs to projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum, Neuroscience, vol.10, pp.248-257, 2014.

S. N. Haber and B. Knutson, The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.35, pp.4-26, 2010.

S. N. Haber, K. Kunishio, M. Mizobuchi, and E. Lynd-balta, The orbital and medial prefrontal circuit through the primate basal ganglia, J Neurosci, vol.15, pp.4851-4867, 1995.

S. N. Haber, E. Lynd, C. Klein, and H. J. Groenewegen, Topographic organization of the ventral striatal efferent projections in the rhesus monkey: an anterograde tracing study, J Comp Neurol, vol.293, pp.282-298, 1990.

, Bibliographie, vol.208

P. Hallett, P. J. Spoelgen, R. Hyman, B. T. Standaert, D. G. Dunah et al., Dopamine D1 activation potentiates striatal NMDA receptors by tyrosine phosphorylationdependent subunit trafficking, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.4690-4700, 2006.

G. M. Halliday and I. Tork, Comparative anatomy of the ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum in the rat, cat, monkey and human, J Comp Neurol, vol.252, pp.423-445, 1986.

A. Hamidovic, U. J. Kang, and H. De-wit, Effects of low to moderate acute doses of pramipexole on impulsivity and cognition in healthy volunteers, J Clin Psychopharmacol, vol.28, pp.45-51, 2008.

S. Hamill, J. T. Trevitt, K. L. Nowend, B. B. Carlson, and J. D. Salamone, Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletions and time-constrained progressive ratio performance: effects of different ratio requirements, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.64, pp.21-27, 1999.

K. Hara, Y. Maruki, X. Long, K. Yoshino, N. Oshiro et al., Raptor, a binding partner of target of rapamycin (TOR), mediates TOR action, Cell, vol.110, pp.177-189, 2002.

A. A. Harrison, B. J. Everitt, and T. W. Robbins, Central 5-HT depletion enhances impulsive responding without affecting the accuracy of attentional performance: interactions with dopaminergic mechanisms, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.133, pp.329-342, 1997.

M. B. Harrison, M. Tissot, and R. G. Wiley, Expression of m1 and m4 muscarinic receptor mRNA in the striatum following a selective lesion of striatonigral neurons, Brain Res, vol.734, pp.323-326, 1996.

A. S. Hart, R. B. Rutledge, P. W. Glimcher, and P. E. Phillips, Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens symmetrically encodes a reward prediction error term, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.698-704, 2014.

A. Hasbi, T. Fan, M. Alijaniaram, T. Nguyen, M. L. Perreault et al., Calcium signaling cascade links dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to striatal BDNF production and neuronal growth, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.106, pp.21377-21382, 2009.

M. H. Hastings, M. Brancaccio, and E. S. Maywood, Circadian pacemaking in cells and circuits of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, J Neuroendocrinol, vol.26, pp.2-10, 2014.

N. Hay and N. Sonenberg, Upstream and downstream of mTOR, Genes Dev, vol.18, pp.1926-1945, 2004.

S. R. Heilbronner, J. Rodriguez-romaguera, G. J. Quirk, H. J. Groenewegen, and S. N. Haber, Circuit-Based Corticostriatal Homologies Between Rat and Primate, Biol Psychiatry, vol.80, pp.509-521, 2016.

L. Heimer, D. S. Zahm, L. Churchill, P. W. Kalivas, and C. Wohltmann, Specificity in the projection patterns of accumbal core and shell in the rat, Neuroscience, vol.41, pp.89-125, 1991.

A. S. Hell, Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase and Protein Kinase C Phosphorylate N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptors at Different Sites, THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, vol.272, pp.12107-11215, 1997.

W. S. Helton, Impulsive responding and the sustained attention to response task, J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, vol.31, pp.39-47, 2009.

H. C. Hemmings, . Jr, P. Greengard, H. Y. Tung, and P. Cohen, DARPP-32, a dopamineregulated neuronal phosphoprotein, is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, Nature, vol.310, pp.503-505, 1984.

S. Hernandez-lopez, T. Tkatch, E. Perez-garci, E. Galarraga, J. Bargas et al., D2 dopamine receptors in striatal medium spiny neurons reduce L-type Ca2+ currents and excitability via a novel PLC[beta]1-IP3-calcineurin-signaling cascade, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.8987-8995, 2000.

S. M. Hersch, B. J. Ciliax, C. A. Gutekunst, H. D. Rees, C. J. Heilman et al., Electron microscopic analysis of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor proteins in the dorsal striatum and their synaptic relationships with motor corticostriatal afferents, J Neurosci, vol.15, pp.5222-5237, 1995.

D. Herve, Identification of a specific assembly of the g protein golf as a critical and regulated module of dopamine and adenosine-activated cAMP pathways in the striatum, Front Neuroanat, vol.5, p.48, 2011.

D. Herve, C. Le-moine, J. C. Corvol, L. Belluscio, C. Ledent et al., Galpha(olf) levels are regulated by receptor usage and control dopamine and adenosine action in the striatum, J Neurosci, vol.21, pp.4390-4399, 2001.

O. Hikosaka, Y. Takikawa, and R. Kawagoe, Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements, Physiol Rev, vol.80, pp.953-978, 2000.

M. Hilario, T. Holloway, X. Jin, and R. M. Costa, Different dorsal striatum circuits mediate action discrimination and action generalization, Eur J Neurosci, vol.35, pp.1105-1114, 2012.

H. Hintiryan, N. N. Foster, I. Bowman, M. Bay, M. Y. Song et al., The mouse cortico-striatal projectome, Nat Neurosci, vol.19, pp.1100-1114, 2016.

C. A. Hoeffer and E. Klann, mTOR signaling: at the crossroads of plasticity, memory and disease, Trends Neurosci, vol.33, pp.67-75, 2010.

C. Holden, Behavioral addictions': do they exist?, Science, vol.294, pp.980-982, 2001.

J. R. Hollerman and W. Schultz, Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning, Nat Neurosci, vol.1, pp.304-309, 1998.

N. A. Holtz, S. E. Tedford, A. L. Persons, S. A. Grasso, and T. C. Napier, Pharmacologically distinct pramipexole-mediated akinesia vs. risk-taking in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, vol.70, pp.77-84, 2016.

M. K. Holz, B. A. Ballif, S. P. Gygi, and J. Blenis, mTOR and S6K1 mediate assembly of the translation preinitiation complex through dynamic protein interchange and ordered phosphorylation events, Cell, vol.123, pp.569-580, 2005.

J. R. Homberg, T. Pattij, M. C. Janssen, E. Ronken, S. F. De-boer et al., Serotonin transporter deficiency in rats improves inhibitory control but not behavioural flexibility, Eur J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.2066-2073, 2007.

W. B. Hoover and R. P. Vertes, Projections of the medial orbital and ventral orbital cortex in the rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.519, pp.3766-3801, 2011.

J. L. Houeto, R. Magnard, J. W. Dalley, D. Belin, and S. Carnicella, Trait Impulsivity and Anhedonia: Two Gateways for the Development of Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease? Front Psychiatry 7, p.91, 2016.

Q. Huang, D. Zhou, K. Chase, J. F. Gusella, N. Aronin et al., Immunohistochemical localization of the D1 dopamine receptor in rat brain reveals its axonal transport, pre- and postsynaptic localization, and prevalence in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and thalamic reticular nucleus, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.89, pp.11988-11992, 1992.

S. Huang, W. Wu, L. Lee, P. Huang, C. et al., mTOR signaling in the nucleus accumbens mediates behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol.86, pp.331-339, 2018.

W. Huang, P. J. Zhu, S. Zhang, H. Zhou, L. Stoica et al., mTORC2 controls actin polymerization required for consolidation of long-term memory, Nat Neurosci, vol.16, pp.441-448, 2013.

B. J. Hunnicutt, B. C. Jongbloets, W. T. Birdsong, K. J. Gertz, H. Zhong et al., A comprehensive excitatory input map of the striatum reveals novel functional organization, 2016.

M. J. Hurley and P. Jenner, What has been learnt from study of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease?, Pharmacol Ther, vol.111, pp.715-728, 2006.

S. Ikemoto, Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex, Brain Res Rev, vol.56, pp.27-78, 2007.

S. Ikemoto and J. Panksepp, The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: a unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking, Brain Res Brain Res Rev, vol.31, pp.6-41, 1999.

A. Ilango, A. J. Kesner, K. L. Keller, G. D. Stuber, A. Bonci et al., Similar roles of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in reward and aversion, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.817-822, 2014.

I. U. Isaias, C. Siri, R. Cilia, D. De-gaspari, G. Pezzoli et al., The relationship between impulsivity and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.23, pp.411-415, 2008.

V. Isella, P. Melzi, M. Grimaldi, S. Iurlaro, R. Piolti et al., Clinical, neuropsychological, and morphometric correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.17, pp.366-371, 2002.

A. Izquierdo, J. L. Brigman, A. K. Radke, P. H. Rudebeck, and A. Holmes, The neural basis of reversal learning: An updated perspective, Neuroscience, vol.345, pp.12-26, 2017.

A. Izquierdo, R. K. Suda, and E. A. Murray, Bilateral orbital prefrontal cortex lesions in rhesus monkeys disrupt choices guided by both reward value and reward contingency, J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.7540-7548, 2004.

M. Jaber, S. W. Robinson, . Missale, M. Jaber, S. W. Robinson et al., Dopamine receptors and brain function, Neuropharmacology, vol.35, pp.1503-1519, 1996.

E. Jacinto, V. Facchinetti, D. Liu, N. Soto, S. Wei et al., SIN1/MIP1 maintains rictor-mTOR complex integrity and regulates Akt phosphorylation and substrate specificity, Cell, vol.127, pp.125-137, 2006.

E. Jacinto, R. Loewith, A. Schmidt, S. Lin, M. A. Ruegg et al., , 2004.

, Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive, Nat Cell Biol, vol.6, pp.1122-1128

M. Jahanshahi, I. Obeso, C. Baunez, M. Alegre, and P. Krack, Parkinson's disease, the subthalamic nucleus, inhibition, and impulsivity, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.128-140, 2015.

M. H. James, R. K. Quinn, L. K. Ong, E. M. Levi, J. L. Charnley et al., mTORC1 inhibition in the nucleus accumbens 'protects' against the expression of drug seeking and 'relapse' and is associated with reductions in GluA1 AMPAR and CAMKII? levels, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.39, pp.1694-1702, 2014.

M. H. James, R. K. Quinn, L. K. Ong, E. M. Levi, D. W. Smith et al., Rapamycin reduces motivated responding for cocaine and alters GluA1 expression in the ventral but not dorsal striatum, Eur J Pharmacol, vol.5, pp.147-154, 2016.

M. Jang, K. B. Um, J. Jang, H. J. Kim, H. Cho et al., Coexistence of glutamatergic spine synapses and shaft synapses in substantia nigra dopamine neurons, Mol Chem Neuropathol, vol.14, pp.153-197, 1991.

M. A. Jenkins and S. F. Traynelis, PKC phosphorylates GluA1-Ser831 to enhance AMPA receptor conductance, Channels (Austin), vol.6, pp.60-64, 2012.

P. Jenner, M. Sheehy, and C. D. Marsden, Noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine modulation of brain dopamine function: implications for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol.15, issue.2, pp.277-289, 1983.

A. A. Jensen, U. B. Pedersen, N. Din, and P. H. Andersen, The dopamine D1 receptor family: structural and functional aspects, Biochem Soc Trans, vol.24, pp.163-169, 1996.

J. D. Jentsch, J. R. Ashenhurst, M. C. Cervantes, S. M. Groman, A. S. James et al., Dissecting impulsivity and its relationships to drug addictions, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1327, pp.1-26, 2014.

R. Jijon-lorenzo, I. H. Caballero-floran, S. Recillas-morales, H. Cortes, J. A. Avalos-fuentes et al., Presynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Modulate [(3)H]GABA Release at StriatoPallidal Terminals via Activation of PLC-->IP3-->Calcineurin and Inhibition of AC-->cAMP-->PKA Signaling Cascades, Neuroscience, vol.372, pp.74-86, 2018.

L. Q. Jin, H. Y. Wang, and E. Friedman, Stimulated D(1) dopamine receptors couple to multiple Galpha proteins in different brain regions, J Neurochem, vol.78, pp.981-990, 2001.

P. S. Johnson, G. J. Madden, A. T. Brewer, J. W. Pinkston, and S. C. Fowler, Effects of acute pramipexole on preference for gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in rats, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.213, pp.11-18, 2011.

J. Joutsa, K. Martikainen, T. Vahlberg, and V. Kaasinen, Effects of dopamine agonist dose and gender on the prognosis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.18, pp.1079-1083, 2012.

J. Joutsa, V. Voon, J. Johansson, S. Niemela, J. Bergman et al., Dopaminergic function and intertemporal choice, Transl Psychiatry, vol.5, p.520, 2015.

J. N. Joyce, S. K. Loeschen, and J. F. Marshall, Dopamine D-2 receptors in rat caudateputamen: the lateral to medial gradient does not correspond to dopaminergic innervation, Brain Res, vol.338, pp.209-218, 1985.

B. Jupp, D. Caprioli, and J. W. Dalley, Highly impulsive rats: modelling an endophenotype to determine the neurobiological, genetic and environmental mechanisms of addiction, Dis Model Mech, vol.6, pp.302-311, 2013.

B. Jupp, D. Caprioli, N. Saigal, I. Reverte, S. Shrestha et al., Dopaminergic and GABA-ergic markers of impulsivity in rats: evidence for anatomical localisation in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, Eur J Neurosci, vol.37, pp.1519-1528, 2013.

T. Kaizuka, T. Hara, N. Oshiro, U. Kikkawa, K. Yonezawa et al., Tti1 and Tel2 are critical factors in mammalian target of rapamycin complex assembly, J Biol Chem, vol.285, pp.20109-20116, 2010.

E. R. Kandel, The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses, Science, vol.294, pp.1030-1038, 2001.

Y. Kawaguchi, Neostriatal cell subtypes and their functional roles, Neurosci Res, vol.27, pp.1-8, 1997.

Y. Kawaguchi, C. J. Wilson, S. J. Augood, and P. C. Emson, Striatal interneurones: chemical, physiological and morphological characterization, Trends Neurosci, vol.18, pp.527-535, 1995.

Y. Kawaguchi, C. J. Wilson, and P. C. Emson, Projection subtypes of rat neostriatal matrix cells revealed by intracellular injection of biocytin, J Neurosci, vol.10, pp.3421-3438, 1990.

J. W. Kebabian and D. B. Calne, Multiple receptors for dopamine, Nature, vol.277, pp.93-96, 1979.

R. Keiflin and P. H. Janak, Dopamine Prediction Errors in Reward Learning and Addiction: From Theory to Neural Circuitry, Neuron, vol.88, pp.247-263, 2015.

R. Keiflin, R. M. Reese, C. A. Woods, and P. H. Janak, The orbitofrontal cortex as part of a hierarchical neural system mediating choice between two good options, J Neurosci, vol.33, pp.15989-15998, 2013.

M. B. Kelz, J. Chen, W. A. Carlezon, . Jr, K. Whisler et al., Expression of the transcription factor deltaFosB in the brain controls sensitivity to cocaine, Nature, vol.401, pp.272-276, 1999.

M. A. Khaled, A. Pushparaj, P. Di-ciano, J. Diaz, L. Foll et al., Dopamine D3 receptors in the basolateral amygdala and the lateral habenula modulate cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.39, pp.3049-3058, 2014.

, Bibliographie 213

Z. U. Khan, A. Gutierrez, R. Martin, A. Penafiel, A. Rivera et al., , 2000.

, Dopamine D5 receptors of rat and human brain, Neuroscience, vol.100, pp.689-699

Z. U. Khan, L. Mrzljak, A. Gutierrez, A. De-la-calle, and P. S. Goldman-rakic, Prominence of the dopamine D2 short isoform in dopaminergic pathways, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.95, pp.7731-7736, 1998.

D. H. Kim, D. D. Sarbassov, S. M. Ali, J. E. King, R. R. Latek et al., mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the cell growth machinery, Cell, vol.110, pp.163-175, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00808-5

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00808-5

J. I. Kim, S. Ganesan, S. X. Luo, Y. W. Wu, E. Park et al., , 2015.

, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, Science, vol.350, pp.102-106

K. M. Kim, K. J. Valenzano, S. R. Robinson, W. D. Yao, L. S. Barak et al., Differential regulation of the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinases and beta-arrestins, J Biol Chem, vol.276, pp.37409-37414, 2001.

Y. C. Kim, S. W. Han, S. L. Alberico, R. N. Ruggiero, B. De-corte et al., Optogenetic Stimulation of Frontal D1 Neurons Compensates for Impaired Temporal Control of Action in Dopamine-Depleted Mice, Curr Biol, vol.27, pp.39-47, 2017.

L. Kirsch-darrow, H. H. Fernandez, M. Marsiske, M. S. Okun, and D. Bowers, Dissociating apathy and depression in Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.67, pp.33-38, 2006.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000230572.07791.22

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2911155?pdf=render

S. J. Kish, K. Shannak, and O. Hornykiewicz, Uneven pattern of dopamine loss in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiologic and clinical implications, N Engl J Med, vol.318, pp.876-880, 1988.

M. Klanker, T. Sandberg, R. Joosten, I. Willuhn, M. Feenstra et al., Phasic dopamine release induced by positive feedback predicts individual differences in reversal learning, Neurobiol Learn Mem, vol.125, pp.135-145, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.nlm.2015.08.011

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5650052?pdf=render

E. Klann, Thwarting Dyskinesia by Targeting mTORC1, Science Signaling, vol.2, pp.42-44, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/scisignal.280pe42

M. A. Kliem, J. F. Pare, Z. U. Khan, T. Wichmann, and Y. Smith, Ultrastructural localization and function of dopamine D1-like receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the internal segment of the globus pallidus of parkinsonian monkeys, Eur J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.836-851, 2010.

B. M. Kluger, Fatigue in Parkinson's Disease, Int Rev Neurobiol, vol.133, pp.743-768, 2017.

E. Knapska and L. Kaczmarek, A gene for neuronal plasticity in the mammalian brain: Zif268/Egr-1/NGFI-A/Krox-24/TIS8/ZENK?, Prog Neurobiol, vol.74, pp.183-211, 2004.

S. Kobayashi and W. Schultz, Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.7837-7846, 2008.

M. N. Koffarnus, A. H. Newman, P. Grundt, K. C. Rice, and J. H. Woods, Effects of selective dopaminergic compounds on a delay-discounting task, Behav Pharmacol, vol.22, pp.300-311, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/fbp.0b013e3283473bcb

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3135665?pdf=render

W. Kolch, Coordinating ERK/MAPK signalling through scaffolds and inhibitors, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, vol.6, pp.827-837, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm1743

P. Krack, P. Limousin, A. L. Benabid, and P. Pollak, Chronic stimulation of subthalamic nucleus improves levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease, Lancet, vol.350, p.1676, 1997.

A. V. Kravitz, B. S. Freeze, P. R. Parker, K. Kay, M. T. Thwin et al., Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry, Nature, vol.466, pp.622-626, 2010.

A. V. Kravitz, L. D. Tye, and A. C. Kreitzer, Distinct roles for direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons in reinforcement, Nat Neurosci, vol.15, pp.816-818, 2012.

W. D. Krenz, A. R. Parker, E. W. Rodgers, and D. J. Baro, Dopaminergic tone persistently regulates voltage-gated ion current densities through the D1R-PKA axis, RNA polymerase II transcription, RNAi, mTORC1, and translation, Front Cell Neurosci, vol.8, p.39, 2014.

J. Kulisevsky, B. Pascual-sedano, M. Barbanoj, A. Gironell, J. Pagonabarraga et al., Acute effects of immediate and controlled-release levodopa on mood in Parkinson's disease: A double-blind study, Mov Disord, vol.22, pp.62-67, 2007.

Y. M. Kupchik, R. M. Brown, J. A. Heinsbroek, M. K. Lobo, D. J. Schwartz et al., Coding the direct/indirect pathways by D1 and D2 receptors is not valid for accumbens projections, Nat Neurosci, vol.18, pp.1230-1232, 2015.

Y. M. Kupchik and P. W. Kalivas, The Direct and Indirect Pathways of the Nucleus Accumbens are not What You Think, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.42, pp.369-370, 2017.

S. Laguesse, N. Morisot, K. Phamluong, R. , and D. , Region specific activation of the AKT and mTORC1 pathway in response to excessive alcohol intake in rodents, Addict Biol, vol.22, pp.1856-1869, 2017.

S. Laguesse, N. Morisot, K. Phamluong, S. A. Sakhai, R. et al., mTORC2 in the dorsomedial striatum of mice contributes to alcohol-dependent F-Actin polymerization, structural modifications, and consumption, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.43, pp.1539-1547, 2018.

J. I. Lake and W. H. Meck, Differential effects of amphetamine and haloperidol on temporal reproduction: dopaminergic regulation of attention and clock speed, Neuropsychologia, vol.51, pp.284-292, 2013.

R. R. Lalchandani, M. S. Van-der-goes, J. G. Partridge, and S. Vicini, Dopamine D2 receptors regulate collateral inhibition between striatal medium spiny neurons, J Neurosci, vol.33, pp.14075-14086, 2013.

S. Lammel, A. Hetzel, O. Hackel, I. Jones, B. Liss et al., Unique properties of mesoprefrontal neurons within a dual mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, Neuron, vol.57, pp.760-773, 2008.

R. Lamprecht and J. Ledoux, Structural plasticity and memory, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.5, pp.45-54, 2004.

S. D. Lane, D. R. Cherek, C. J. Pietras, and O. V. Tcheremissine, Measurement of delay discounting using trial-by-trial consequences, Behav Processes, vol.64, pp.287-303, 2003.

A. E. Lang and J. A. Obeso, Challenges in Parkinson's disease: restoration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is not enough, Lancet Neurol, vol.3, pp.309-316, 2004.

M. Laplante and D. M. Sabatini, mTOR signaling in growth control and disease, Cell, vol.149, pp.274-293, 2012.

C. Latapy and J. M. Beaulieu, beta-Arrestins in the central nervous system, Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci, vol.118, pp.267-295, 2013.

, Bibliographie 215

A. D. Lawrence, A. H. Evans, and A. J. Lees, Compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's, 2003.

A. D. Lawrence, A. H. Evans, and A. J. Lees, Compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease: reward systems gone awry?, Lancet Neurol, vol.2, pp.595-604, 2003.

A. J. Lawrence, A. D. Blackwell, R. A. Barker, F. Spagnolo, L. Clark et al., Predictors of punding in Parkinson's disease: results from a questionnaire survey, Mov Disord, vol.22, pp.2339-2345, 2007.

L. Moal, M. Simon, and H. , Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: functional and regulatory roles, Physiol Rev, vol.71, pp.155-234, 1991.

C. Le-moine and B. Bloch, Expression of the D3 dopamine receptor in peptidergic neurons of the nucleus accumbens: comparison with the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, Neuroscience, vol.73, pp.131-143, 1996.

C. Le-moine, E. Normand, and B. Bloch, Phenotypical characterization of the rat striatal neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor gene, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, pp.4205-4209, 1991.

C. Le-moine, F. Tison, and B. Bloch, D2 dopamine receptor gene expression by cholinergic neurons in the rat striatum, Neurosci Lett, vol.117, pp.248-252, 1990.

S. Lecca, F. J. Meye, and M. Mameli, The lateral habenula in addiction and depression: an anatomical, synaptic and behavioral overview, Eur J Neurosci, vol.39, pp.1170-1178, 2014.

L. Lecourtier and P. H. Kelly, Bilateral lesions of the habenula induce attentional disturbances in rats, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.30, pp.484-496, 2005.

D. Lee, M. F. Rushworth, M. E. Walton, M. Watanabe, and M. Sakagami, Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making, J Neurosci, vol.27, pp.8170-8173, 2007.

F. J. Lee, S. Xue, L. Pei, B. Vukusic, N. Chery et al., Dual regulation of NMDA receptor functions by direct proteinprotein interactions with the dopamine D1 receptor, Cell, vol.111, pp.219-230, 2002.

J. Lee, L. Pei, A. Moszczynska, B. Vukusic, J. Fletcher et al., Dopamine transporter cell surface localization facilitated by a direct interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, The EMBO Journal, vol.26, pp.2127-2136, 2007.

S. M. Lee, A. Kant, D. Blake, V. Murthy, K. Boyd et al., SKF-83959 is not a highly-biased functionally selective D1 dopamine receptor ligand with activity at phospholipase C, Neuropharmacology, vol.86, pp.145-154, 2014.

S. P. Lee, C. H. So, A. J. Rashid, G. Varghese, R. Cheng et al., Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor Co-activation generates a novel phospholipase C-mediated calcium signal, J Biol Chem, vol.279, pp.35671-35678, 2004.

A. F. Leentjens, K. Dujardin, L. Marsh, P. Martinez-martin, I. H. Richard et al., Apathy and anhedonia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations, 2008.

, Mov Disord, vol.23, 2004.

A. F. Leentjens, K. Dujardin, L. Marsh, I. H. Richard, S. E. Starkstein et al., Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a validation study of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, the Beck anxiety inventory, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale, Mov Disord, vol.26, pp.407-415, 2011.

A. F. Leentjens, J. Koester, B. Fruh, D. T. Shephard, P. Barone et al., The effect of pramipexole on mood and motivational symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies, Clin Ther, vol.31, pp.89-98, 2009.

I. Leroi, M. Andrews, K. Mcdonald, V. Harbishettar, R. Elliott et al., Apathy and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: a direct comparison, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.18, pp.198-203, 2012.

B. Levant, The D3 dopamine receptor: neurobiology and potential clinical relevance, Pharmacol Rev, vol.49, pp.231-252, 1997.

M. Levesque and A. Parent, The striatofugal fiber system in primates: a reevaluation of its organization based on single-axon tracing studies, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.102, pp.11888-11893, 2005.

A. I. Levey, S. M. Hersch, D. B. Rye, R. K. Sunahara, H. B. Niznik et al., Localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in brain with subtype-specific antibodies, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.90, pp.8861-8865, 1993.

M. Levitt, S. Spector, A. Sjoerdsma, and S. Udenfriend, Elucidation of the RateLimiting Step in Norepinephrine Biosynthesis in the Perfused Guinea-Pig Heart, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.148, pp.1-8, 1965.

R. Levy and V. Czernecki, Apathy and the basal ganglia, J Neurol, vol.253, pp.54-61, 2006.

R. Levy and B. Dubois, Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortexbasal ganglia circuits, Cereb Cortex, vol.16, pp.916-928, 2006.

N. Lezcano and C. Bergson, D1/D5 dopamine receptors stimulate intracellular calcium release in primary cultures of neocortical and hippocampal neurons, J Neurophysiol, vol.87, pp.2167-2175, 2002.

N. Li, B. Lee, R. J. Liu, M. Banasr, J. M. Dwyer et al., mTOR-dependent synapse formation underlies the rapid antidepressant effects of NMDA antagonists, Science, vol.329, pp.959-964, 2010.

G. Y. Liao, D. A. Wagner, M. H. Hsu, and J. P. Leonard, Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current, Mol Pharmacol, vol.59, pp.960-964, 2001.
DOI : 10.1124/mol.59.5.960

A. Lieberman, Depression in Parkinson's disease -- a review, Acta Neurol Scand, vol.113, pp.1-8, 2006.

S. Y. Lim, A. H. Evans, and J. M. Miyasaki, Impulse control and related disorders in Parkinson's disease: review, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1142, pp.85-107, 2008.

L. E. Limbird, Activation and attenuation of adenylate cyclase. The role of GTP-binding proteins as macromolecular messengers in receptor--cyclase coupling, Biochem J, vol.195, pp.1-13, 1981.

P. Limousin, P. Pollak, A. Benazzouz, D. Hoffmann, E. Broussolle et al., Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation for severe Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.10, pp.672-674, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/mds.870100523

P. Limousin, P. Pollak, A. Benazzouz, D. Hoffmann, J. F. Le-bas et al., Effect of parkinsonian signs and symptoms of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation, Lancet, vol.345, pp.91-95, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90062-4

M. C. Lipford and M. H. Silber, Long-term use of pramipexole in the management of restless legs syndrome, Sleep Med, vol.13, pp.1280-1285, 2012.

J. O. Lipton and M. Sahin, The neurology of mTOR, Neuron, vol.84, pp.275-291, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.09.034

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.09.034

F. Lisovoski, C. Haby, E. Borrelli, C. Schleef, M. O. Revel et al., Induction of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA synthesis in a 6-hydroxydopamine parkinsonian rat model, Brain Res Bull, vol.28, pp.697-701, 1992.

C. Y. Liu, S. J. Wang, J. L. Fuh, C. H. Lin, Y. Y. Yang et al., The correlation of depression with functional activity in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol, vol.244, pp.493-498, 1997.

M. K. Lobo, H. E. Covington, D. Chaudhury, A. K. Friedman, H. Sun et al., Cell type-specific loss of BDNF signaling mimics optogenetic control of cocaine reward, Science, vol.330, pp.385-390, 2010.

M. K. Lobo and E. J. Nestler, The striatal balancing act in drug addiction: distinct roles of direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons, Front Neuroanat, vol.5, p.41, 2011.

R. Loewith, E. Jacinto, S. Wullschleger, A. Lorberg, J. L. Crespo et al., Two TOR complexes, only one of which is rapamycin sensitive, have distinct roles in cell growth control, Mol Cell, vol.10, pp.457-468, 2002.

G. D. Logan, On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A user's guide to the stopsignal paradigm, Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language, pp.189-239, 1994.

G. D. Logan, W. B. Cowan, and K. A. Davis, On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a model and a method, J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform, vol.10, pp.276-291, 1984.

S. F. Logue and T. J. Gould, The neural and genetic basis of executive function: attention, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.123, pp.45-54, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.08.007

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3933483?pdf=render

M. Loos, T. Pattij, M. C. Janssen, D. S. Counotte, A. N. Schoffelmeer et al., Dopamine receptor D1/D5 gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts impulsive choice in rats, Cereb Cortex, vol.20, pp.1064-1070, 2010.

J. S. Lou, Physical and mental fatigue in Parkinson's disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment, Drugs Aging, vol.26, pp.195-208, 2009.

X. Y. Lu, M. B. Ghasemzadeh, and P. W. Kalivas, Expression of D1 receptor, D2 receptor, substance P and enkephalin messenger RNAs in the neurons projecting from the nucleus accumbens, Neuroscience, vol.82, pp.767-780, 1998.

A. Luchicchi, O. Mnie-filali, H. Terra, B. Bruinsma, S. F. De-kloet et al., Sustained Attentional States Require Distinct Temporal Involvement of the Dorsal and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Front Neural Circuits, vol.10, pp.562-578, 1994.

X. M. Ma and J. Blenis, Molecular mechanisms of mTOR-mediated translational control, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, vol.10, pp.307-318, 2009.

C. J. Bibliographiemacdonald and W. H. Meck, Differential effects of clozapine and haloperidol on interval timing in the supraseconds range, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.182, pp.232-244, 2005.

G. J. Madden, A. M. Begotka, B. R. Raiff, and L. L. Kastern, Delay discounting of real and hypothetical rewards, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, vol.11, pp.139-145, 2003.

G. J. Madden, P. S. Johnson, A. T. Brewer, J. W. Pinkston, and S. C. Fowler, Effects of pramipexole on impulsive choice in male wistar rats, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, vol.18, pp.267-276, 2010.

R. Maggio and M. J. Millan, Dopamine D2-D3 receptor heteromers: pharmacological properties and therapeutic significance, Curr Opin Pharmacol, vol.10, pp.100-107, 2010.

R. Maggio, M. Scarselli, M. Capannolo, and M. J. Millan, Novel dimensions of D3 receptor function: Focus on heterodimerisation, transactivation and allosteric modulation, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.25, pp.1470-1479, 2015.

R. Maggio, M. Scarselli, F. Novi, M. J. Millan, and G. U. Corsini, Potent activation of dopamine D3/D2 heterodimers by the antiparkinsonian agents, S32504, pramipexole and ropinirole, J Neurochem, vol.87, pp.631-641, 2003.

R. Magnard, Y. Vachez, C. Carcenac, S. Boulet, J. L. Houeto et al., Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Denervation Does Not Promote Impulsive Choice in the Rat: Implication for Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease, Frontiers in Behav. Neurosci, vol.12, 2018.

R. Magnard, Y. Vachez, C. Carcenac, P. Krack, O. David et al., What can rodent models tell us about apathy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease? Transl, 2016.

L. C. Mahan, R. M. Burch, F. J. Monsma, . Jr, and D. R. Sibley, Expression of striatal D1 dopamine receptors coupled to inositol phosphate production and Ca2+ mobilization in Xenopus oocytes, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.87, pp.2196-2200, 1990.

A. Maillet, P. Krack, E. Lhommee, E. Metereau, H. Klinger et al., The prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in apathy, anxiety and depression in de novo Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.139, pp.2486-2502, 2016.

C. Malapani, B. Rakitin, R. Levy, W. H. Meck, B. Deweer et al., Coupled temporal memories in Parkinson's disease: a dopamine-related dysfunction, J Cogn Neurosci, vol.10, pp.316-331, 1998.

E. Mamikonyan, A. D. Siderowf, J. E. Duda, M. N. Potenza, S. Horn et al., Long-term follow-up of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.23, pp.75-80, 2008.

A. C. Mar and T. W. Robbins, Delay discounting and impulsive choice in the rat, Current protocols in neuroscience, vol.8, pp.1-18, 2007.

A. C. Mar, A. L. Walker, D. E. Theobald, D. M. Eagle, and T. W. Robbins, Dissociable effects of lesions to orbitofrontal cortex subregions on impulsive choice in the rat, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.6398-6404, 2011.

D. Marcellino, P. Carriba, M. Filip, A. Borgkvist, M. Frankowska et al., Antagonistic cannabinoid CB1/dopamine D2 receptor interactions in striatal CB1/D2 heteromers. A combined neurochemical and behavioral analysis, Neuropharmacology, vol.54, pp.815-823, 2008.

D. Marcellino, S. Ferre, V. Casado, A. Cortes, B. Le-foll et al., Identification of dopamine D1-D3 receptor heteromers. Indications for a role of synergistic D1-D3 receptor interactions in the striatum, J Biol Chem, vol.283, pp.26016-26025, 2008.

A. V. Maricq, S. Roberts, and R. M. Church, Methamphetamine and time estimation, J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process, vol.7, pp.18-30, 1981.

R. Marin, Differential diagnosis and classification of apathy, Am J Psychiatry, vol.147, pp.22-30, 1990.

R. S. Marin, Apathy: a neuropsychiatric syndrome, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.3, pp.243-254, 1991.

C. D. Marsden, The mysterious motor function of the basal ganglia: the Robert Wartenberg Lecture, Neurology, vol.32, pp.514-539, 1982.

K. A. Martin and J. Blenis, Coordinate regulation of translation by the PI 3-kinase and mTOR pathways, Adv Cancer Res, vol.86, pp.1-39, 2002.

D. Martinez, A. Broft, R. W. Foltin, M. Slifstein, D. R. Hwang et al., Cocaine dependence and d2 receptor availability in the functional subdivisions of the striatum: relationship with cocaine-seeking behavior, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.29, pp.1190-1202, 2004.

D. Martinez, R. Gil, M. Slifstein, D. R. Hwang, Y. Huang et al., Alcohol dependence is associated with blunted dopamine transmission in the ventral striatum, Biol Psychiatry, vol.58, pp.779-786, 2005.

D. Martinez, P. A. Saccone, F. Liu, M. Slifstein, D. Orlowska et al., Deficits in dopamine D(2) receptors and presynaptic dopamine in heroin dependence: commonalities and differences with other types of addiction, Biol Psychiatry, vol.71, pp.192-198, 2012.

M. P. Martres, N. Sales, M. L. Bouthenet, and J. C. Schwartz, Localisation and pharmacological characterisation of D-2 dopamine receptors in rat cerebral neocortex and cerebellum using [125I]iodosulpride, Eur J Pharmacol, vol.118, pp.211-219, 1985.

M. Matsumoto and O. Hikosaka, Lateral habenula as a source of negative reward signals in dopamine neurons, Nature, vol.447, pp.1111-1115, 2007.

M. Matsumoto and O. Hikosaka, Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals, Nature, vol.459, pp.837-841, 2009.

M. S. Mazei-robison, J. W. Koo, A. K. Friedman, C. S. Lansink, A. J. Robison et al., Role for mTOR Signaling and Neuronal Activity in Morphine-Induced Adaptations in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons, Neuron, vol.72, pp.977-990, 2011.

S. L. Mcelroy, P. E. Keck, . Jr, H. G. Pope, . Jr et al., Compulsive buying: a report of 20 cases, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.55, pp.242-248, 1994.

P. S. Mcguire and L. S. Seiden, The effects of tricyclic antidepressants on performance under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates schedule in rats, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.214, pp.635-641, 1980.

L. D. Mcvittie, M. A. Ariano, and D. R. Sibley, Characterization of anti-peptide antibodies for the localization of D2 dopamine receptors in rat striatum, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, pp.1441-1445, 1991.

J. H. Meador-woodruff, A. Mansour, D. K. Grandy, S. P. Damask, O. Civelli et al., Distribution of D5 dopamine receptor mRNA in rat brain, Neurosci Lett, vol.145, pp.209-212, 1992.

W. H. Meck, Affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor predicts neuroleptic potency in decreasing the speed of an internal clock, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.25, pp.1185-1189, 1986.

W. H. Meck, Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception, Brain Res Cogn Brain Res, vol.3, pp.227-242, 1996.

W. H. Meck, Neuropsychology of timing and time perception, Brain Cogn, vol.58, pp.1-8, 2005.

W. H. Meck, Neuroanatomical localization of an internal clock: a functional link between mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, and mesocortical dopaminergic systems, Brain Res, vol.1109, pp.93-107, 2006.

M. Mendez and J. S. Shapira, Pedophilic behavior from brain disease, J Sex Med, vol.8, pp.1092-1100, 2011.

A. Merola, A. Romagnolo, L. Rizzi, M. G. Rizzone, M. Zibetti et al., Impulse control behaviors and subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease, J Neurol, vol.264, pp.40-48, 2017.

O. Meyuhas, Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation: Four Decades of Research, Int Rev Cell Mol Biol, vol.320, pp.41-73, 2015.

M. Milenkova, B. Mohammadi, K. Kollewe, C. Schrader, A. Fellbrich et al., Intertemporal choice in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.26, 2004.

G. Milligan, G protein-coupled receptor dimerization: function and ligand pharmacology, Mol Pharmacol, vol.66, pp.1-7, 2004.

C. Missale, S. R. Nash, S. W. Robinson, M. Jaber, C. et al., Dopamine receptors: from structure to function, Physiol Rev, vol.78, pp.189-225, 1998.

S. Miyachi, O. Hikosaka, and X. Lu, Differential activation of monkey striatal neurons in the early and late stages of procedural learning, Exp Brain Res, vol.146, pp.122-126, 2002.

S. Mobini, S. Body, M. Y. Ho, C. M. Bradshaw, E. Szabadi et al., Effects of lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.160, pp.290-298, 2002.

F. J. Monsma, . Jr, L. D. Mcvittie, C. R. Gerfen, L. C. Mahan et al., Multiple D2 dopamine receptors produced by alternative RNA splicing, Nature, vol.342, pp.926-929, 1989.

M. F. Montaron, J. M. Deniau, A. Menetrey, J. Glowinski, and A. M. Thierry, Prefrontal cortex inputs of the nucleus accumbens-nigro-thalamic circuit, Neuroscience, vol.71, pp.371-382, 1996.

J. P. Montmayeur, P. Bausero, N. Amlaiky, L. Maroteaux, R. Hen et al., Differential expression of the mouse D2 dopamine receptor isoforms, FEBS Lett, vol.278, pp.239-243, 1991.

T. J. Moore, J. Glenmullen, and D. R. Mattison, Reports of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping associated with dopamine receptor agonist drugs, JAMA Intern Med, vol.174, pp.1930-1933, 2014.

M. Morales and E. B. Margolis, Ventral tegmental area: cellular heterogeneity, connectivity and behaviour, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.18, pp.73-85, 2017.

M. Morales and D. H. Root, Glutamate neurons within the midbrain dopamine regions, Neuroscience, vol.282, pp.60-68, 2014.

M. Morelli, T. Mennini, D. Chiara, and G. , Nigral dopamine autoreceptors are exclusively of the D2 type: quantitative autoradiography of [125I]iodosulpride and [125I]SCH 23982 in adjacent brain sections, Neuroscience, vol.27, pp.865-870, 1988.

M. Moreno, D. Economidou, A. C. Mar, C. Lopez-granero, D. Caprioli et al., Divergent effects of D(2)/(3) receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens core and shell on impulsivity and locomotor activity in high and low impulsive rats, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.228, pp.19-30, 2013.

T. S. Moriyama, A. C. Felicio, M. H. Chagas, V. S. Tardelli, H. B. Ferraz et al., Increased dopamine transporter density in Parkinson's disease patients with Social Anxiety Disorder, J Neurol Sci, vol.310, pp.53-57, 2011.

S. E. Morrison, V. B. Mcginty, J. Du-hoffmann, N. , and S. M. , Limbic-motor integration by neural excitations and inhibitions in the nucleus accumbens, J Neurophysiol, vol.118, pp.2549-2567, 2017.

J. L. Muir, B. J. Everitt, and T. W. Robbins, The cerebral cortex of the rat and visual attentional function: dissociable effects of mediofrontal, cingulate, anterior dorsolateral, and parietal cortex lesions on a five-choice serial reaction time task, Cereb Cortex, vol.6, pp.470-481, 1996.

J. Mulcrone and R. W. Kerwin, The regional pattern of D4 gene expression in human brain, Neurosci Lett, vol.234, pp.147-150, 1997.

E. R. Murphy, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, Local glutamate receptor antagonism in the rat prefrontal cortex disrupts response inhibition in a visuospatial attentional task, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.179, pp.99-107, 2005.

E. R. Murphy, E. S. Robinson, D. E. Theobald, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, Contrasting effects of selective lesions of nucleus accumbens core or shell on inhibitory control and amphetamine-induced impulsive behaviour, Eur J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.353-363, 2008.

M. J. Murphy and A. Y. Deutch, Organization of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex in the rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.526, pp.1498-1526, 2018.

J. Myerson, L. Green, and M. Warusawitharana, Area under the curve as a measure of discounting, J Exp Anal Behav, vol.76, pp.235-243, 2001.

M. Myslobodsky, F. M. Lalonde, and L. Hicks, Are patients with Parkinson's disease suicidal?, J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol, vol.14, pp.120-124, 2001.

A. Nadjar, J. M. Brotchie, C. Guigoni, Q. Li, S. B. Zhou et al., Phenotype of striatofugal medium spiny neurons in parkinsonian and dyskinetic nonhuman primates: a call for a reappraisal of the functional organization of the basal ganglia, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.8653-8661, 2006.

R. G. Nair-roberts, S. D. Chatelain-badie, E. Benson, H. White-cooper, J. P. Bolam et al., Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat, Neuroscience, vol.152, pp.1024-1031, 2008.

K. Nakano, K. Nakano, T. Kayahara, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Ushiro, Neural circuits and functional organization of the striatum, J Neurol, vol.247, pp.1-15, 2000.

Y. Namkung, C. Dipace, J. A. Javitch, and D. R. Sibley, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation regulates post-endocytic trafficking of the D2 dopamine receptor, J Biol Chem, vol.284, pp.15038-15051, 2009.

W. J. Nauta and V. B. Domesick, Afferent and efferent relationships of the basal ganglia, Ciba Found Symp, vol.107, pp.3-29, 1984.

G. Navarro, A. Cordomi, V. Casado-anguera, E. Moreno, N. S. Cai et al., Evidence for functional precoupled complexes of receptor heteromers and adenylyl cyclase, J Neurochem, vol.9, pp.172-184, 2014.

J. Neasta, S. Ben-hamida, Y. Quinn, S. Carnicella, R. et al., Role for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1signaling in neuroadaptations underlying alcoholrelated disorders, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00800434

L. Negre-pages, H. Grandjean, M. Lapeyre-mestre, J. L. Montastruc, A. Fourrier et al., Anxious and depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease: the French cross-sectionnal DoPaMiP study, Mov Disord, vol.25, pp.157-166, 2010.

E. J. Nestler, Review. Transcriptional mechanisms of addiction: role of DeltaFosB, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol.363, pp.3245-3255, 2008.

K. A. Neve, J. K. Seamans, and H. Trantham-davidson, Dopamine receptor signaling, J Recept Signal Transduct Res, vol.24, pp.165-205, 2004.

S. R. Neves, P. T. Ram, and R. Iyengar, G protein pathways, Science, vol.296, pp.1636-1639, 2002.

S. M. Nicola, The nucleus accumbens as part of a basal ganglia action selection circuit, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.191, pp.521-550, 2007.

A. Nieoullon, Dopamine and the regulation of cognition and attention, Prog Neurobiol, vol.67, pp.53-83, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00307886

A. Nieoullon and A. Coquerel, Dopamine: a key regulator to adapt action, emotion, motivation and cognition, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.16, issue.2, pp.3-9, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00306939

E. A. Nimchinsky, P. R. Hof, W. G. Janssen, J. H. Morrison, and C. Schmauss, Expression of dopamine D3 receptor dimers and tetramers in brain and in transfected cells, J Biol Chem, vol.272, pp.29229-29237, 1997.

M. J. Nirenberg and C. Waters, Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use, Mov Disord, vol.21, pp.524-529, 2006.

A. Nishi, J. A. Bibb, S. Matsuyama, M. Hamada, H. Higashi et al., Regulation of DARPP-32 dephosphorylation at PKA-and Cdk5-sites by NMDA and AMPA receptors: distinct roles of calcineurin and protein phosphatase-2A, J Neurochem, vol.81, pp.832-841, 2002.

A. Nishi, J. A. Bibb, G. L. Snyder, H. Higashi, A. C. Nairn et al., Amplification of dopaminergic signaling by a positive feedback loop, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.97, pp.12840-12845, 2000.

A. Nishi and T. Shuto, Potential for targeting dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, Expert Opin Ther Targets, vol.21, pp.259-272, 2017.

A. Nishi, G. L. Snyder, and P. Greengard, Bidirectional regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation by dopamine, J Neurosci, vol.17, pp.8147-8155, 1997.

A. Nishi, G. L. Snyder, A. C. Nairn, and P. Greengard, Role of calcineurin and protein phosphatase-2A in the regulation of DARPP-32 dephosphorylation in neostriatal neurons, J Neurochem, vol.72, pp.2015-2021, 1999.

R. L. Nussbaum and C. E. Ellis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, N Engl J Med, vol.348, pp.1356-1364, 2003.

O. Doherty and J. P. , Lights, camembert, action! The role of human orbitofrontal cortex in encoding stimuli, rewards, and choices, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1121, pp.254-272, 2007.

P. O&apos;donnell, A. Lavin, L. W. Enquist, A. A. Grace, and J. P. Card, Interconnected parallel circuits between rat nucleus accumbens and thalamus revealed by retrograde transynaptic transport of pseudorabies virus, J Neurosci, vol.17, pp.2143-2167, 1997.

J. K. O&apos;hare, K. K. Ade, T. Sukharnikova, S. D. Van-hooser, M. L. Palmeri et al., Pathway-Specific Striatal Substrates for Habitual Behavior, Neuron, vol.89, pp.472-479, 2016.

S. S. O&apos;sullivan, A. H. Evans, and A. J. Lees, Punding in Parkinson's disease, Pract Neurol, vol.7, pp.397-399, 2007.

R. D. Oades and G. M. Halliday, Ventral tegmental (A10) system: neurobiology. 1. Anatomy and connectivity, vol.434, pp.117-165, 1987.

J. Olds, Drives and Reinforcements. Behavioral Studies of Hypothalamic Functions, 1977.

J. Olds and P. Milner, Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain, J Comp Physiol Psychol, vol.47, pp.419-427, 1954.

D. Ongur and J. L. Price, The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans, Cereb Cortex, vol.10, pp.206-219, 2000.

P. Padoa-schioppa, C. Assad, and J. A. , Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value, Nature, vol.441, pp.223-226, 2006.

C. Padoa-schioppa, L. Jandolo, and E. Visalberghi, Multi-stage mental process for economic choice in capuchins, Cognition, vol.99, pp.1-13, 2006.

J. Pagonabarraga, J. Kulisevsky, A. P. Strafella, and P. Krack, Apathy in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, neural substrates, diagnosis, and treatment, Lancet Neurol, vol.14, pp.518-531, 2015.

J. Pagonabarraga, S. Martinez-horta, R. Fernandez-de-bobadilla, J. Perez, R. Ribosa-nogue et al., , 2016.

, Mov Disord, vol.31, pp.45-52

M. Pais-vieira, D. Lima, and V. Galhardo, Orbitofrontal cortex lesions disrupt risk assessment in a novel serial decision-making task for rats, Neuroscience, vol.145, pp.225-231, 2007.

R. D. Palmiter, Dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum is essential for motivated behaviors: lessons from dopamine-deficient mice, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1129, pp.35-46, 2008.

A. Parent, A. Charara, and D. Pinault, Single striatofugal axons arborizing in both pallidal segments and in the substantia nigra in primates, Brain Res, vol.698, pp.280-284, 1995.

A. Parent and F. Cicchetti, The current model of basal ganglia organization under scrutiny, Mov Disord, vol.13, pp.199-202, 1998.

J. Parkinson, An essay on the shaking palsy. 1817, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.14, pp.223-236, 2002.

V. Pascoli, A. Besnard, D. Herve, C. Pages, N. Heck et al., Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B mediates cocaine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, Biol Psychiatry, vol.69, pp.218-227, 2011.

N. E. Paterson, C. Wetzler, A. Hackett, and T. Hanania, Impulsive action and impulsive choice are mediated by distinct neuropharmacological substrates in rat, Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.15, pp.1473-1487, 2012.

T. Pattij, M. C. Janssen, L. J. Vanderschuren, A. N. Schoffelmeer, and M. M. Van-gaalen, Involvement of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in inhibitory response control, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.191, pp.587-598, 2007.

J. H. Patton, M. S. Stanford, and E. S. Barratt, Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale, J Clin Psychol, vol.51, pp.768-774, 1995.

S. Paul, A. C. Nairn, P. Wang, and P. J. Lombroso, NMDA-mediated activation of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP regulates the duration of ERK signaling, Nat Neurosci, vol.6, pp.34-42, 2003.

G. Paxinos and C. Watson, The rat brain in stereotaxic coodinates, 1998.

D. E. Payer, M. Guttman, S. J. Kish, J. Tong, A. Strafella et al., )C]-(+)-PHNO PET imaging of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorders, Mov Disord, vol.30, issue.1, pp.160-166, 2015.

L. R. Pearce, X. Huang, J. Boudeau, R. Pawlowski, S. Wullschleger et al., Identification of Protor as a novel Rictor-binding component of mTOR complex-2, Biochem J, vol.405, pp.513-522, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00478790

S. Pecina and K. C. Berridge, Hedonic hot spot in nucleus accumbens shell: where do mu-opioids cause increased hedonic impact of sweetness?, J Neurosci, vol.25, pp.11777-11786, 2005.

S. Pecina, K. C. Berridge, and L. A. Parker, Pimozide does not shift palatability: separation of anhedonia from sensorimotor suppression by taste reactivity, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.58, pp.801-811, 1997.

S. Pecina, B. Cagniard, K. C. Berridge, J. W. Aldridge, and X. Zhuang, Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards, J Neurosci, vol.23, pp.9395-9402, 2003.

K. F. Pedersen, G. Alves, K. Bronnick, D. Aarsland, O. B. Tysnes et al., Apathy in drug-naive patients with incident Parkinson's disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study, J Neurol, vol.257, pp.217-223, 2010.

M. L. Perreault, A. Hasbi, M. Alijaniaram, T. Fan, G. Varghese et al., The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer localizes in dynorphin/enkephalin neurons: increased high affinity state following amphetamine and in schizophrenia, J Biol Chem, vol.285, pp.36625-36634, 2010.

M. L. Perreault, A. Hasbi, B. F. O&apos;dowd, G. , and S. R. , The dopamine d1-d2 receptor heteromer in striatal medium spiny neurons: evidence for a third distinct neuronal pathway in Basal Ganglia, Front Neuroanat, vol.5, p.31, 2011.

M. L. Perreault, A. Hasbi, B. F. O&apos;dowd, G. , and S. R. , Heteromeric dopamine receptor signaling complexes: emerging neurobiology and disease relevance, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.39, pp.156-168, 2014.

J. L. Perry and M. E. Carroll, The role of impulsive behavior in drug abuse, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.200, pp.1-26, 2008.

R. Pes, S. C. Godar, A. T. Fox, L. M. Burgeno, H. J. Strathman et al., Pramipexole enhances disadvantageous decision-making: Lack of relation to changes in phasic dopamine release, Neuropharmacology, vol.114, pp.77-87, 2017.

J. Peters and C. Buchel, The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: understanding variability, Trends Cogn Sci, vol.15, pp.227-239, 2011.

T. R. Peterson, M. Laplante, C. C. Thoreen, Y. Sancak, S. A. Kang et al., DEPTOR is an mTOR inhibitor frequently overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells and required for their survival, Cell, vol.137, pp.873-886, 2009.

M. A. Pezze, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, Differential roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens in attentional performance on the five-choice serial reaction time task, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.32, pp.273-283, 2007.

O. T. Phillipson and A. C. Griffiths, The topographic order of inputs to nucleus accumbens in the rat, Neuroscience, vol.16, pp.275-296, 1985.

A. L. Phu, Z. Xu, V. Brakoulias, N. Mahant, V. S. Fung et al., Effect of impulse control disorders on disability and quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients, J Clin Neurosci, vol.21, pp.63-66, 2014.

G. C. Pluck and R. G. Brown, Apathy in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.73, pp.636-642, 2002.

W. Poewe, K. Seppi, C. M. Tanner, G. M. Halliday, P. Brundin et al., , 2017.

W. H. Poewe, Clinical aspects of motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease, Neurology, vol.44, pp.6-9, 1994.

L. J. Poirier, M. Giguere, and R. Marchand, Comparative morphology of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the monkey, cat and rat, Brain Res Bull, vol.11, pp.371-397, 1983.

M. Politis and F. Niccolini, Serotonin in Parkinson's disease, Behav Brain Res, vol.277, pp.136-145, 2015.

G. M. Pontone, J. R. Williams, K. E. Anderson, G. Chase, S. A. Goldstein et al., Prevalence of anxiety disorders and anxiety subtypes in patients with Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.24, pp.1333-1338, 2009.

A. T. Popescu, M. R. Zhou, and M. M. Poo, Phasic dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex enhances stimulus discrimination, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.113, pp.3169-3176, 2016.

H. H. Pothuizen, A. L. Jongen-relo, J. Feldon, Y. , and B. K. , Double dissociation of the effects of selective nucleus accumbens core and shell lesions on impulsive-choice behaviour and salience learning in rats, Eur J Neurosci, vol.22, pp.2605-2616, 2005.

C. Pou, C. Mannoury-la-cour, L. A. Stoddart, M. J. Millan, and G. Milligan, Functional homomers and heteromers of dopamine D2L and D3 receptors co-exist at the cell surface, J Biol Chem, vol.287, pp.8864-8878, 2012.

C. C. Probst and T. Van-eimeren, The functional anatomy of impulse control disorders, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, vol.13, p.386, 2013.

C. D. Proulx, S. Aronson, D. Milivojevic, C. Molina, A. Loi et al., A neural pathway controlling motivation to exert effort, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.115, pp.5792-5797, 2018.

K. Prybylowski, K. Chang, N. Sans, L. Kan, S. Vicini et al., The synaptic localization of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors is controlled by interactions with PDZ proteins and AP-2, Neuron, vol.47, pp.845-857, 2005.

R. Pulido, A. Zuniga, and A. Ullrich, PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif, EMBO J, vol.17, pp.7337-7350, 1998.

Z. Qamhawi, D. Towey, B. Shah, G. Pagano, J. Seibyl et al., Clinical correlates of raphe serotonergic dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.138, pp.2964-2973, 2015.

C. A. Rabinak and M. J. Nirenberg, Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome in Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.67, pp.58-63, 2010.

H. Rachlin, A. Raineri, and D. Cross, Subjective probability and delay, J Exp Anal Behav, vol.55, pp.233-244, 1991.

D. Radl, M. Chiacchiaretta, R. G. Lewis, K. Brami-cherrier, L. Arcuri et al., Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.115, pp.198-203, 2018.

S. V. Rakhilin, P. A. Olson, A. Nishi, N. N. Starkova, A. A. Fienberg et al., A network of control mediated by regulator of calcium/calmodulin-dependent signaling, Science, vol.306, pp.698-701, 2004.

, Bibliographie 227

A. Rangel, A. Camererrangel, C. Camerer, and P. R. Montague, A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.9, pp.545-556, 2008.

A. J. Rashid, B. F. O&apos;dowd, V. Verma, G. , and S. R. , Neuronal Gq/11-coupled dopamine receptors: an uncharted role for dopamine, Trends Pharmacol Sci, vol.28, pp.551-555, 2007.

A. J. Rashid, C. H. So, M. M. Kong, T. Furtak, M. El-ghundi et al., D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.654-659, 2007.

B. Raught, A. C. Gingras, and N. Sonenberg, The target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.98, pp.7037-7044, 2001.

S. Ravel, E. Legallet, A. , and P. , Tonically active neurons in the monkey striatum do not preferentially respond to appetitive stimuli, Exp Brain Res, vol.128, pp.531-534, 1999.

J. N. Rawlins, J. Feldon, and S. Butt, The effects of delaying reward on choice preference in rats with hippocampal or selective septal lesions, Behav Brain Res, vol.15, pp.191-203, 1985.

J. P. Ray and J. L. Price, The organization of projections from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys, J Comp Neurol, vol.337, pp.1-31, 1993.

N. Ray and A. P. Strafella, Dopamine, reward, and frontostriatal circuitry in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: insights from functional imaging, Clin EEG Neurosci, vol.41, pp.87-93, 2010.

P. Redgrave, V. Coizet, E. Comoli, J. G. Mchaffie, M. Leriche et al., Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia, Front Neuroanat, vol.4, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00800202

P. Redgrave, T. J. Prescott, and K. Gurney, Is the short-latency dopamine response too short to signal reward error, Trends Neurosci, vol.22, pp.146-151, 1999.

P. Redgrave, M. Rodriguez, Y. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez-oroz, S. Lehericy et al., Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.11, pp.760-772, 2010.

P. S. Regier, S. Amemiya, and A. D. Redish, Hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum respond differently to a behavioral strategy change on a spatial navigation task, J Neurophysiol, vol.114, pp.1399-1416, 2015.

J. S. Reijnders, U. Ehrt, W. E. Weber, D. Aarsland, and A. F. Leentjens, A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.23, pp.183-189, 2008.

P. Remy, M. Doder, A. Lees, N. Turjanski, and D. Brooks, Depression in Parkinson's disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system, Brain, vol.128, pp.1314-1322, 2005.

J. Riba, U. M. Kramer, M. Heldmann, S. Richter, T. F. Munte et al., Linking dynamic patterns of neural activity in orbitofrontal cortex with decision making, Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol.3, pp.24-32, 2008.

I. H. Richard, Anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease, Adv Neurol, vol.96, pp.42-55, 2005.

I. H. Richard, Depression and apathy in Parkinson's disease, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, vol.7, pp.295-301, 2007.

E. K. Richfield, J. B. Penney, Y. , and A. B. , Anatomical and affinity state comparisons between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat central nervous system, Neuroscience, vol.30, pp.767-777, 1989.

J. D. Richter and N. Sonenberg, egulation of cap-dependent transla-tion by eIF4E inhibitory proteins, Nature, vol.433, pp.477-480, 2005.

I. Rieu, J. L. Houeto, B. Pereira, I. De-chazeron, A. Bichon et al., Impact of Mood and Behavioral Disorders on Quality of Life in Parkinson's disease, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.6, pp.267-277, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01721843

M. Rivalan, S. H. Ahmed, and F. Dellu-hagedorn, Risk-prone individuals prefer the wrong options on a rat version of the Iowa Gambling Task, Biol Psychiatry, vol.66, pp.743-749, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01153589

A. Rivera, I. Alberti, A. B. Martin, J. A. Narvaez, A. De-la-calle et al., Molecular phenotype of rat striatal neurons expressing the dopamine D5 receptor subtype, Eur J Neurosci, vol.16, pp.2049-2058, 2002.

A. Rivera, B. Cuellar, F. J. Giron, D. K. Grandy, A. De-la-calle et al., , 2002.

, Dopamine D4 receptors are heterogeneously distributed in the striosomes/matrix compartments of the striatum, J Neurochem, vol.80, pp.219-229

A. Rivera, S. Trias, A. Penafiel, J. Narvaez, Z. Diaz-cabiale et al., Expression of D4 dopamine receptors in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons in the rat striatum, Brain Res, vol.989, pp.35-41, 2003.

A. Rizos, A. Sauerbier, A. Antonini, D. Weintraub, P. Martinez-martin et al., A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease patients treated with short-and long-acting dopamine agonists, Eur J Neurol, vol.23, pp.1255-1261, 2016.

T. W. Robbins, The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.163, pp.362-380, 2002.

T. W. Robbins, C. , and L. , Behavioral addictions, vol.30, pp.66-72, 2015.

E. S. Robinson, Blockade of noradrenaline re-uptake sites improves accuracy and impulse control in rats performing a five-choice serial reaction time tasks, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.219, pp.303-312, 2012.

E. S. Robinson, D. M. Eagle, A. C. Mar, A. Bari, G. Banerjee et al., Similar effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on three distinct forms of impulsivity in the rat, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.33, pp.1028-1037, 2008.

T. E. Robinson and K. C. Berridge, The neural basis of drug craving: an incentivesensitization theory of addiction, Brain Res Brain Res Rev, vol.18, pp.247-291, 1993.

A. J. Robison and E. J. Nestler, Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.12, pp.623-637, 2011.

E. W. Rodgers, W. D. Krenz, X. Jiang, L. Li, D. J. Baro et al., Dopaminergic tone regulates transient potassium current maximal conductance through a translational mechanism requiring D1Rs, cAMP/PKA, Erk and mTOR, BMC Neurosci, vol.14, pp.1615-1624, 2007.

R. D. Rogers, C. Baunez, B. J. Everitt, and T. W. Robbins, Lesions of the medial and lateral striatum in the rat produce differential deficits in attentional performance, 2001.

, Behav Neurosci, vol.115, pp.799-811

M. F. Roitman, G. D. Stuber, P. E. Phillips, R. M. Wightman, and R. M. Carelli, Dopamine operates as a subsecond modulator of food seeking, J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.1265-1271, 2004.

S. L. Rokosik and T. C. Napier, Pramipexole-induced increased probabilistic discounting: comparison between a rodent model of Parkinson's disease and controls, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, pp.1397-1408, 2012.

K. S. Rommelfanger and D. Weinshenker, Norepinephrine: The redheaded stepchild of Parkinson's disease, Biochem Pharmacol, vol.74, pp.177-190, 2007.

P. Room, F. T. Russchen, H. J. Groenewegen, and A. H. Lohman, Efferent connections of the prelimbic (area 32) and the infralimbic (area 25) cortices: an anterograde tracing study in the cat, J Comp Neurol, vol.242, pp.40-55, 1985.

R. Roskoski and . Jr, ERK1/2 MAP kinases: structure, function, and regulation, Pharmacol Res, vol.66, pp.105-143, 2012.

M. A. Rossi, T. Sukharnikova, V. Y. Hayrapetyan, L. Yang, and H. H. Yin, Operant selfstimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, PLoS One, vol.8, p.65799, 2013.

P. H. Rudebeck, R. C. Saunders, D. A. Lundgren, and E. A. Murray, Specialized Representations of Value in the Orbital and Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex: Desirability versus Availability of Outcomes, Neuron, vol.95, pp.1208-1220, 2017.

P. H. Rudebeck, R. C. Saunders, A. T. Prescott, L. S. Chau, and E. A. Murray, Prefrontal mechanisms of behavioral flexibility, emotion regulation and value updating, Nat Neurosci, vol.16, pp.1140-1145, 2013.

P. H. Rudebeck, M. E. Walton, A. N. Smyth, D. M. Bannerman, and M. F. Rushworth, , 2006.

, Separate neural pathways process different decision costs, Nat Neurosci, vol.9, pp.1161-1168

G. Rylander, Psychoses and the punding and choreiform syndromes in addiction to central stimulant drugs, Psychiatr Neurol Neurochir, vol.75, pp.203-212, 1972.

D. M. Sabatini, mTOR and cancer: insights into a complex relationship, Nat Rev Cancer, vol.6, pp.729-734, 2006.

D. J. Safer, J. M. Zito, and E. M. Fine, Increased methylphenidate usage for attention deficit disorder in the 1990s, Pediatrics, vol.98, pp.1084-1088, 1996.

B. Sahin, A. H. Hawasli, R. W. Greene, J. D. Molkentin, and J. A. Bibb, Negative regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 targets by protein kinase C, Eur J Pharmacol, vol.581, pp.270-275, 2008.

J. D. Salamone, The involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in appetitive and aversive motivation, Behav Brain Res, vol.61, pp.117-133, 1994.

J. D. Salamone and M. Correa, The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine, Neuron, vol.76, pp.470-485, 2012.

, Bibliographie 230

J. D. Salamone, J. D. Correasalamone, M. Correa, A. Farrar, and S. M. Mingote, Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.191, pp.461-482, 2007.

J. D. Salamone, M. Correa, S. Mingote, and S. M. Weber, Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking behavior: implications for studies of natural motivation, psychiatry, and drug abuse, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.305, pp.1-8, 2003.

M. J. Salles, D. Herve, J. M. Rivet, S. Longueville, M. J. Millan et al., Transient and rapid activation of Akt/GSK-3beta and mTORC1 signaling by D3 dopamine receptor stimulation in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, J Neurochem, vol.125, pp.532-544, 2013.

A. Samii, J. G. Nutt, and B. R. Ransom, Parkinson's disease, Lancet, vol.363, pp.1783-1793, 2004.

M. Samuel, M. Rodriguez-oroz, A. Antonini, J. M. Brotchie, K. Ray-chaudhuri et al., Management of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: Controversies and future approaches, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.150-159, 2015.

Y. Sancak, C. C. Thoreen, T. R. Peterson, R. A. Lindquist, S. A. Kang et al., PRAS40 is an insulin-regulated inhibitor of the mTORC1 protein kinase, Mol Cell, vol.25, pp.903-915, 2007.

G. Santangelo, L. Trojano, P. Barone, D. Errico, D. Grossi et al., Apathy in Parkinson's disease: diagnosis, neuropsychological correlates, pathophysiology and treatment, Behav Neurol, vol.27, pp.501-513, 2013.

E. Santini, M. Heiman, P. Greengard, E. Valjent, and G. Fisone, Inhibition of mTOR signaling in Parkinson's disease prevents L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, Sci Signal, vol.2, p.36, 2009.

E. Santini and E. Klann, Dysregulated mTORC1-dependent translational control: from brain disorders to psychoactive drugs, Front Behav Neurosci, vol.5, 2011.

D. D. Sarbassov, S. M. Ali, D. H. Kim, D. A. Guertin, R. R. Latek et al., Rictor, a novel binding partner of mTOR, defines a rapamycin-insensitive and raptor-independent pathway that regulates the cytoskeleton, Curr Biol, vol.14, pp.1296-1302, 2004.

D. D. Sarbassov, S. M. Ali, S. Sengupta, J. H. Sheen, P. P. Hsu et al., Prolonged rapamycin treatment inhibits mTORC2 assembly and Akt/PKB, Mol Cell, vol.22, pp.159-168, 2006.

A. Saunders, I. A. Oldenburg, V. K. Berezovskii, C. A. Johnson, N. D. Kingery et al., A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex, Nature, vol.521, pp.85-89, 2015.

M. Savasta, A. Dubois, J. Benavides, and B. Scatton, Different plasticity changes in D1 and D2 receptors in rat striatal subregions following impairment of dopaminergic transmission, Neurosci Lett, vol.85, pp.119-124, 1988.

M. Savasta, A. Dubois, C. Feuerstein, M. Manier, and B. Scatton, Denervation supersensitivity of striatal D2 dopamine receptors is restricted to the ventro- and dorsolateral regions of the striatum, Neurosci Lett, vol.74, pp.180-186, 1987.

M. Savasta, A. Dubois, and B. Scatton, Autoradiographic localization of D1 dopamine receptors in the rat brain with, Brain Res, vol.375, pp.291-301, 1986.

M. Scarselli, F. Novi, E. Schallmach, R. Lin, A. Baragli et al., D2/D3 dopamine receptor heterodimers exhibit unique functional properties, J Biol Chem, vol.276, pp.30308-30314, 2001.

M. P. Scheid and J. R. Woodgett, PKB/AKT: functional insights from genetic models, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, vol.2, pp.760-768, 2001.

R. B. Schiffer, R. Kurlan, A. Rubin, and S. Boer, Evidence for atypical depression in Parkinson's disease, Am J Psychiatry, vol.145, pp.1020-1022, 1988.

E. A. Schilman, H. B. Uylings, Y. Galis-de-graaf, D. Joel, and H. J. Groenewegen, The orbital cortex in rats topographically projects to central parts of the caudateputamen complex, Neurosci Lett, vol.432, pp.40-45, 2008.

E. Schiorring, Psychopathology induced by "speed drugs, Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol.14, pp.109-122, 1981.

G. Schoenbaum and Y. Shaham, The role of orbitofrontal cortex in drug addiction: a review of preclinical studies, Biol Psychiatry, vol.63, pp.256-262, 2008.

W. Schultz, Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms, Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol.7, pp.191-197, 1997.

W. Schultz, Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons, J Neurophysiol, vol.80, pp.1-27, 1998.

W. Schultz, Behavioral dopamine signals, Trends Neurosci, vol.30, pp.203-210, 2007.

W. Schultz and R. Romo, Dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: contingencies of responses to stimuli eliciting immediate behavioral reactions, J Neurophysiol, vol.63, pp.607-624, 1990.

R. K. Schwarting and J. P. Huston, Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of mesostriatal dopamine neurons and their physiological sequelae, Prog Neurobiol, vol.49, pp.215-266, 1996.

J. K. Seamans, C. C. Lapish, and D. Durstewitz, Comparing the prefrontal cortex of rats and primates: insights from electrophysiology, Neurotox Res, vol.14, pp.249-262, 2008.

P. Seeman, Targeting the dopamine D2 receptor in schizophrenia, Expert Opin Ther Targets, vol.10, pp.515-531, 2006.

P. Seeman, Parkinson's disease treatment may cause impulse-control disorder via dopamine D3 receptors, Synapse, vol.69, pp.183-189, 2015.

M. Seinstra, L. Wojtecki, L. Storzer, A. Schnitzler, and T. Kalenscher, No Effect of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Intertemporal Decision-Making in Parkinson Patients, 2016.

T. Sesia, Y. Temel, L. W. Lim, A. Blokland, H. W. Steinbusch et al., Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens core and shell: opposite effects on impulsive action, Exp Neurol, vol.214, pp.135-139, 2008.

B. Seymour, T. Singer, and R. Dolan, The neurobiology of punishment, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.8, pp.300-311, 2007.

Q. Shan, M. J. Christie, and B. W. Balleine, Plasticity in striatopallidal projection neurons mediates the acquisition of habitual actions, Eur J Neurosci, vol.42, pp.2097-2104, 2015.

Q. Shan, M. Ge, M. J. Christie, and B. W. Balleine, The acquisition of goal-directed actions generates opposing plasticity in direct and indirect pathways in dorsomedial striatum, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.9196-9201, 2014.

M. E. Shetreat, L. Lin, A. C. Wong, and S. Rayport, Visualization of D1 dopamine receptors on living nucleus accumbens neurons and their colocalization with D2 receptors, J Neurochem, vol.66, pp.1475-1482, 1996.

J. A. Shuen, M. Chen, B. Gloss, C. , and N. , Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice for simultaneous visualization of medium spiny neurons in the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.2681-2685, 2008.

M. Siciliano, L. Trojano, R. De-micco, A. De-mase, F. Garramone et al., Motor, behavioural, and cognitive correlates of fatigue in early, de novo Parkinson disease patients, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.45, pp.63-68, 2017.

A. Sidhu and H. B. Niznik, Coupling of dopamine receptor subtypes to multiple and diverse G proteins, Int J Dev Neurosci, vol.18, pp.669-677, 2000.

M. Sierra, S. Carnicella, A. P. Strafella, A. Bichon, E. Lhommee et al., Apathy and Impulse Control Disorders: Yin & Yang of Dopamine Dependent Behaviors, J Parkinsons Dis, vol.5, pp.625-636, 2015.

H. Simon, M. Le-moal, and A. Calas, Efferents and afferents of the ventral tegmental-A10 region studied after local injection of [3H]leucine and horseradish peroxidase, Brain Res, vol.178, pp.17-40, 1979.

M. J. Simon, A. Higuera-matas, D. Roura-martinez, M. Ucha, R. Santos-toscano et al., Changes in D1 but not D2 dopamine or mu-opioid receptor expression in limbic and motor structures after lateral hypothalamus electrical self-stimulation: A quantitative autoradiographic study, Neurobiol Learn Mem, vol.127, pp.17-26, 2016.

N. W. Simon, B. S. Beas, K. S. Montgomery, R. P. Haberman, J. L. Bizon et al., Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity, Eur J Neurosci, vol.37, pp.1779-1788, 2013.

N. Sinha, S. Manohar, and M. Husain, Impulsivity and apathy in Parkinson's disease, J Neuropsychol, vol.7, pp.255-283, 2013.

C. Siri, R. Cilia, E. Reali, B. Pozzi, E. Cereda et al., Long-term cognitive follow-up of Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.696-704, 2015.

K. M. Smith, S. X. Xie, and D. Weintraub, Incident impulse control disorder symptoms and dopamine transporter imaging in Parkinson disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.87, pp.864-870, 2016.

K. S. Smith and A. M. Graybiel, A dual operator view of habitual behavior reflecting cortical and striatal dynamics, Neuron, vol.79, pp.361-374, 2013.

K. S. Smith and A. M. Graybiel, Habit formation, Dialogues Clin Neurosci, vol.18, pp.33-43, 2016.

Y. Smith, D. V. Raju, J. F. Pare, and M. Sidibe, The thalamostriatal system: a highly specific network of the basal ganglia circuitry, Trends Neurosci, vol.27, pp.520-527, 2004.

P. Sockeel, K. Dujardin, D. Devos, C. Deneve, A. Destee et al., The Lille apathy rating scale (LARS), a new instrument for detecting and quantifying apathy: validation in Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.77, pp.579-584, 2006.

M. Sohtaoglu, D. Y. Demiray, G. Kenangil, S. Ozekmekci, and E. Erginoz, Long term follow-up of Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.16, pp.334-337, 2010.

P. Sokoloff, B. Giros, M. P. Martres, M. L. Bouthenet, and J. C. Schwartz, Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics, Nature, vol.347, pp.146-151, 1990.

P. Solla, M. Bortolato, A. Cannas, C. S. Mulas, and F. Marrosu, Paraphilias and paraphilic disorders in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review of the literature, 2015.

, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.604-613

P. Solla, A. Cannas, M. G. Marrosu, and F. Marrosu, Dopaminergic-induced paraphilias associated with impulse control and related disorders in patients with Parkinson disease, J Neurol, vol.259, pp.2752-2754, 2012.

S. Spector, A. Sjoerdsma, P. Zaltzman-nirenberg, M. Levitt, and S. Udenfriend, Norepinephrine synthesis from tyrosine-C-14 in isolated perfused guinea pig heart, Science, vol.139, pp.1299-1301, 1963.

J. R. St-onge and S. B. Floresco, Prefrontal cortical contribution to risk-based decision making, Cereb Cortex, vol.20, pp.1816-1828, 2010.

A. M. Stamatakis and G. D. Stuber, Activation of lateral habenula inputs to the ventral midbrain promotes behavioral avoidance, Nat Neurosci, vol.15, pp.1105-1107, 2012.

R. Stan, M. M. Mclaughlin, R. Cafferkey, R. K. Johnson, M. Rosenberg et al., Interaction between FKBP12-rapamycin and TOR involves a conserved serine residue, J Biol Chem, vol.269, pp.32027-32030, 1994.

A. J. Stark, C. T. Smith, Y. C. Lin, K. J. Petersen, P. Trujillo et al., Nigrostriatal and Mesolimbic, vol.2, issue.3, 2018.

, Receptor Expression in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Compulsive RewardDriven Behaviors, J Neurosci, vol.38, pp.3230-3239

S. E. Starkstein and S. Brockman, Apathy and Parkinson's disease, Curr Treat Options Neurol, vol.13, pp.267-273, 2011.

W. R. Stauffer, A. Lak, S. Kobayashi, and W. Schultz, Components and characteristics of the dopamine reward utility signal, J Comp Neurol, vol.524, pp.1699-1711, 2016.

T. D. Steeves, J. Miyasaki, M. Zurowski, A. E. Lang, G. Pellecchia et al., Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study, Brain, vol.132, pp.1376-1385, 2009.

E. E. Steinberg, R. Keiflin, J. R. Boivin, I. B. Witten, K. Deisseroth et al., A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning, Nat Neurosci, vol.16, pp.966-973, 2013.

F. K. Stephan and I. Zucker, Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.69, pp.1583-1586, 1972.

L. Stoica, P. J. Zhu, W. Huang, H. Zhou, S. C. Kozma et al., Selective pharmacogenetic inhibition of mammalian target of Rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) blocks long-term synaptic plasticity and memory storage, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.108, pp.3791-3796, 2011.

J. C. Stoof and J. W. Kebabian, Opposing roles for D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in efflux of cyclic AMP from rat neostriatum, Nature, vol.294, pp.366-368, 1981.

C. M. Stopper and S. B. Floresco, Contributions of the nucleus accumbens and its subregions to different aspects of risk-based decision making, Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, vol.11, pp.97-112, 2011.

C. M. Stopper and S. B. Floresco, What's better for me? Fundamental role for lateral habenula in promoting subjective decision biases, Nat Neurosci, vol.17, pp.33-35, 2014.

C. M. Stopper, S. Khayambashi, and S. B. Floresco, Receptor-specific modulation of risk-based decision making by nucleus accumbens dopamine, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.38, pp.715-728, 2013.

G. D. Stuber, T. S. Hnasko, J. P. Britt, R. H. Edwards, and A. Bonci, Dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens but not the dorsal striatum corelease glutamate, J Neurosci, vol.30, pp.8229-8233, 2010.

H. Sun, P. J. Cocker, F. D. Zeeb, and C. A. Winstanley, Chronic atomoxetine treatment during adolescence decreases impulsive choice, but not impulsive action, in adult rats and alters markers of synaptic plasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.219, pp.285-301, 2012.

D. J. Surmeier, W. J. Song, Y. , and Z. , Coordinated expression of dopamine receptors in neostriatal medium spiny neurons, J Neurosci, vol.16, pp.6579-6591, 1996.

L. P. Sutton, C. , and M. G. , Essential role of D1R in the regulation of mTOR complex1 signaling induced by cocaine, Neuropharmacology, vol.99, pp.610-619, 2015.

L. W. Swanson, The projections of the ventral tegmental area and adjacent regions: a combined fluorescent retrograde tracer and immunofluorescence study in the rat, Brain Res Bull, vol.9, pp.321-353, 1982.

M. Takagishi and T. Chiba, Efferent projections of the infralimbic (area 25) region of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat: an anterograde tracer PHA-L study, Brain Res, vol.566, pp.26-39, 1991.

Y. K. Takahashi, A. J. Langdon, Y. Niv, and G. Schoenbaum, Temporal Specificity of Reward Prediction Errors Signaled by Putative Dopamine Neurons in Rat VTA Depends on Ventral Striatum, Neuron, vol.91, pp.182-193, 2016.

Y. K. Takahashi and G. Schoenbaum, Ventral striatal lesions disrupt dopamine neuron signaling of differences in cue value caused by changes in reward timing but not number, Behav Neurosci, vol.130, pp.593-599, 2016.

S. J. Tang, G. Reis, H. Kang, A. C. Gingras, N. Sonenberg et al., A rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway contributes to long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.99, pp.467-472, 2002.

F. I. Tarazi, A. Campbell, S. K. Yeghiayan, and R. J. Baldessarini, Localization of dopamine receptor subtypes in corpus striatum and nucleus accumbens septi of rat brain: comparison of D1-, D2-, and D4-like receptors, Neuroscience, vol.83, pp.169-176, 1998.

S. Taverna, E. Ilijic, and D. J. Surmeier, Recurrent collateral connections of striatal medium spiny neurons are disrupted in models of Parkinson's disease, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.5504-5512, 2008.

S. S. Taylor, J. A. Buechler, Y. , and W. , cAMP-dependent protein kinase: framework for a diverse family of regulatory enzymes, Annu Rev Biochem, vol.59, pp.971-1005, 1990.

S. E. Tedford, A. L. Persons, and T. C. Napier, Dopaminergic lesions of the dorsolateral striatum in rats increase delay discounting in an impulsive choice task, PLoS One, vol.10, 2015.

J. M. Tepper and J. P. Bolam, Functional diversity and specificity of neostriatal interneurons, Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol.14, pp.685-692, 2004.

, Bibliographie 235

S. Terrillon and M. Bouvier, Roles of G-protein-coupled receptor dimerization, EMBO Rep, vol.5, pp.30-34, 2004.

S. Terrillon and M. Bouvier, Roles of G-protein-coupled receptor dimerization, EMBO Rep, vol.5, pp.30-34, 2004.

S. Thobois, C. Ardouin, E. Lhommee, H. Klinger, C. Lagrange et al., Non-motor dopamine withdrawal syndrome after surgery for Parkinson's disease: predictors and underlying mesolimbic denervation, Brain, vol.133, pp.1111-1127, 2010.

S. Thobois, F. Vingerhoets, V. Fraix, J. Xie-brustolin, H. Mollion et al., Role of dopaminergic treatment in dopamine receptor down-regulation in advanced Parkinson disease: a positron emission tomographic study, Arch Neurol, vol.61, pp.1705-1709, 2004.

V. Thomanetz, N. Angliker, D. Cloetta, R. M. Lustenberger, M. Schweighauser et al., Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology, J Cell Biol, vol.201, pp.293-308, 2013.

G. M. Thomas and R. L. Huganir, MAPK cascade signalling and synaptic plasticity, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.5, pp.173-183, 2004.

C. A. Thorn, H. Atallah, M. Howe, and A. M. Graybiel, Differential dynamics of activity changes in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatal loops during learning, Neuron, vol.66, pp.781-795, 2010.

J. Tian and N. Uchida, Habenula Lesions Reveal that Multiple Mechanisms Underlie Dopamine Prediction Errors, Neuron, vol.87, pp.1304-1316, 2015.

M. Tiberi, K. R. Jarvie, C. Silvia, P. Falardeau, J. A. Gingrich et al., Cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal assignment of a gene encoding a second D1 dopamine receptor subtype: differential expression pattern in rat brain compared with the D1A receptor, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, pp.7491-7495, 1991.

W. G. Tingley, M. D. Ehlers, K. Kameyama, C. Doherty, J. B. Ptak et al., Characterization of protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit using phosphorylation sitespecific antibodies, J Biol Chem, vol.272, pp.5157-5166, 1997.

N. Tokunaga, M. E. Choudhury, N. Nishikawa, M. Nagai, T. Tujii et al., Pramipexole upregulates dopamine receptor D(2) and D(3) expression in rat striatum, J Pharmacol Sci, vol.120, pp.133-137, 2012.

E. Tolosa, Y. Compta, and C. Gaig, The premotor phase of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.13, pp.2-7, 2007.

E. Tolosa and C. Pont-sunyer, Progress in defining the premotor phase of Parkinson's disease, J Neurol Sci, vol.310, pp.4-8, 2011.

N. K. Totah, M. E. Jackson, and B. Moghaddam, Preparatory attention relies on dynamic interactions between prelimbic cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, Cereb Cortex, vol.23, pp.729-738, 2013.

N. K. Totah, Y. B. Kim, H. Homayoun, and B. Moghaddam, Anterior cingulate neurons represent errors and preparatory attention within the same behavioral sequence, J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.6418-6426, 2009.

M. Tremblay, M. M. Silveira, S. Kaur, J. G. Hosking, W. K. Adams et al., Chronic D2/3 agonist ropinirole treatment increases preference for uncertainty in rats regardless of baseline choice patterns, Eur J Neurosci, vol.45, pp.159-166, 2017.

E. Tricomi, B. W. Balleine, and J. P. Doherty, A specific role for posterior dorsolateral striatum in human habit learning, Eur J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.2225-2232, 2009.

N. X. Tritsch, J. B. Ding, and B. L. Sabatini, Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA, Nature, vol.490, pp.262-266, 2012.

N. X. Tritsch and B. L. Sabatini, Dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission in cortex and striatum, Neuron, vol.76, pp.33-50, 2012.

K. M. Turner, J. Peak, and T. H. Burne, Measuring Attention in Rodents: Comparison of a Modified Signal Detection Task and the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task, Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, vol.9, pp.95-122, 1971.

U. Ungerstedt, Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain, Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, vol.367, pp.1-48, 1971.

A. Usiello, J. H. Baik, F. Rouge-pont, R. Picetti, A. Dierich et al., Distinct functions of the two isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors, Nature, vol.408, pp.199-203, 2000.

J. M. Uslaner, R. , and T. E. , Subthalamic nucleus lesions increase impulsive action and decrease impulsive choice -mediation by enhanced incentive motivation?, Eur J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.2345-2354, 2006.

I. Usuda, K. Tanaka, and T. Chiba, Efferent projections of the nucleus accumbens in the rat with special reference to subdivision of the nucleus: biotinylated dextran amine study, Brain Res, vol.797, pp.73-93, 1998.

H. B. Uylings, H. J. Groenewegen, and B. Kolb, Do rats have a prefrontal cortex?, Behav Brain Res, vol.146, pp.3-17, 2003.

E. Valjent, B. Aubier, A. G. Corbille, K. Brami-cherrier, J. Caboche et al., Plasticity-associated gene Krox24/Zif268 is required for longlasting behavioral effects of cocaine, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.4956-4960, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00085672

E. Valjent, J. Bertran-gonzalez, H. Bowling, S. Lopez, E. Santini et al., Haloperidol regulates the state of phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via activation of PKA and phosphorylation of DARPP-32, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.36, pp.2561-2570, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00665873

E. Valjent, J. Bertran-gonzalez, D. Herve, G. Fisone, and J. A. Girault, Looking BAC at striatal signaling: cell-specific analysis in new transgenic mice, Trends Neurosci, vol.32, pp.538-547, 2009.

, Bibliographie 237

E. Valjent, E. Valjent, J. C. Corvol, C. Pages, M. J. Besson et al., Involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade for cocainerewarding properties, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.8701-8709, 2000.

E. Valjent, V. Pascoli, P. Svenningsson, S. Paul, H. Enslen et al., Regulation of a protein phosphatase cascade allows convergent dopamine and glutamate signals to activate ERK in the striatum, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.102, pp.491-496, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00084826

D. Vallone, R. Picetti, E. Borrelli, R. M. Van-der-velden, M. P. Broen et al., Frequency of mood and anxiety fluctuations in Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations: A systematic review, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.24, pp.125-132, 2000.

M. M. Gaalen, R. Van-koten, A. N. Schoffelmeer, and L. J. Vanderschuren, Critical involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in impulsive decision making, Biol Psychiatry, vol.60, pp.66-73, 2006.

L. Vanderbroek, J. Acker, A. A. Palmer, H. De-wit, and J. Mackillop, Interrelationships among parental family history of substance misuse, delay discounting, and personal substance use, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.233, pp.39-48, 2016.

F. Verbruggen and G. D. Logan, Automatic and controlled response inhibition: associative learning in the go/no-go and stop-signal paradigms, J Exp Psychol Gen, vol.137, pp.649-672, 2008.

R. P. Vertes, Differential projections of the infralimbic and prelimbic cortex in the rat, Synapse, vol.51, pp.32-58, 2004.

A. M. Vicente, P. Galvao-ferreira, F. Tecuapetla, and R. M. Costa, Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies, Curr Biol, vol.26, pp.267-269, 2016.

J. Volkmann, C. Daniels, and K. Witt, Neuropsychiatric effects of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson disease, Nat Rev Neurol, vol.6, pp.487-498, 2010.

V. Voon and J. W. Dalley, Parkinson disease: impulsive choice-Parkinson disease and dopaminergic therapy, Nat Rev Neurol, vol.7, pp.541-542, 2011.

V. Voon, P. O. Fernagut, J. Wickens, C. Baunez, M. Rodriguez et al., Chronic dopaminergic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from dyskinesias to impulse control disorders, Lancet Neurol, vol.8, pp.1140-1149, 2009.

V. Voon and S. H. Fox, Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.64, pp.1089-1096, 2007.

V. Voon, K. Hassan, M. Zurowski, M. De-souza, T. Thomsen et al., Prevalence of repetitive and reward-seeking behaviors in Parkinson disease, Neurology, vol.67, pp.1254-1257, 2006.

V. Voon, A. R. Mehta, and M. Hallett, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: recent advances, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.24, pp.324-330, 2011.

V. Voon, T. C. Napier, M. J. Frank, V. Sgambato-faure, A. A. Grace et al., Impulse control disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: an update, Lancet Neurol, vol.16, pp.238-250, 2017.

V. Voon, B. Reynolds, C. Brezing, C. Gallea, M. Skaljic et al., Impulsive choice and response in dopamine agonist-related impulse control behaviors, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.207, pp.645-659, 2010.

V. Voon, A. Schoerling, S. Wenzel, V. Ekanayake, J. Reiff et al., Frequency of impulse control behaviours associated with dopaminergic therapy in restless legs syndrome, BMC Neurol, vol.11, p.117, 2011.

V. Voon, M. Sohr, A. E. Lang, M. N. Potenza, A. D. Siderowf et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a multicenter case--control study, Ann Neurol, vol.69, pp.986-996, 2011.

V. P. Voon, M. N. Thomsen, and T. , Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson's disease, Curr Opin Neurol, vol.20, pp.484-492, 2007.

V. R. Voon, B. Brezing, C. Gallea, C. Skaljic, M. Ekanayake et al., Impulsive choice and resonse in dopamine agonistrelated impulse control behaviors, Psychopharmacology, vol.207, pp.645-659, 2010.

P. Voorn, L. J. Vanderschuren, H. J. Groenewegen, T. W. Robbins, and C. M. Pennartz, Putting a spin on the dorsal-ventral divide of the striatum, Trends Neurosci, vol.27, pp.468-474, 2004.

C. Vriend, T. Pattij, Y. D. Van-der-werf, P. Voorn, J. Booij et al., Depression and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: Two sides of the same coin?, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, vol.38, pp.60-71, 2014.

S. I. Walaas, H. C. Hemmings, . Jr, P. Greengard, and A. C. Nairn, Beyond the dopamine receptor: regulation and roles of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, Front Neuroanat, vol.5, p.50, 2011.

K. Walsh and G. Bennett, Parkinson's disease and anxiety, Postgrad Med J, vol.77, pp.89-93, 2001.

J. K. Wamsley, D. R. Gehlert, F. M. Filloux, and T. M. Dawson, Comparison of the distribution of D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in the rat brain, J Chem Neuroanat, vol.2, pp.119-137, 1989.

J. Wang, S. Carnicella, K. Phamluong, J. Jeanblanc, J. A. Ronesi et al., Ethanol induces long-term facilitation of NR2B-NMDA receptor activity in the dorsal striatum: implications for alcohol drinking behavior, J Neurosci, vol.27, pp.3593-3602, 2007.

L. Wang, T. E. Harris, R. A. Roth, J. C. Lawrence, and . Jr, PRAS40 regulates mTORC1 kinase activity by functioning as a direct inhibitor of substrate binding, J Biol Chem, vol.282, 2007.

X. Wang, Y. Luo, Y. He, F. Li, H. Shi et al., Nucleus Accumbens Core Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway Is Critical for CueInduced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats, The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.30, pp.12632-12641, 2010.

J. W. Warburton, Depressive symptoms in Parkinson patients referred for thalamotomy, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.30, pp.368-370, 1967.

, Bibliographie 239

J. D. Wareham, M. N. Potenza, J. D. Potenza, and M. N. , Pathological gambling and substance use disorders, Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, vol.36, pp.242-247, 2010.

W. Wei, S. Ding, and F. M. Zhou, Dopaminergic treatment weakens medium spiny neuron collateral inhibition in the parkinsonian striatum, J Neurophysiol, vol.117, pp.987-999, 2017.

D. M. Weiner, A. I. Levey, R. K. Sunahara, H. B. Niznik, B. F. O&apos;dowd et al., D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in rat brain, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, pp.1859-1863, 1991.

D. Weintraub, Dopamine and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Ann Neurol, vol.64, pp.93-100, 2008.

D. Weintraub, Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and possible risk factors, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol.15, pp.110-113, 2009.

D. Weintraub, A. S. David, A. H. Evans, J. E. Grant, and M. Stacy, Clinical spectrum of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.121-127, 2015.

D. Weintraub, J. Koester, M. N. Potenza, A. D. Siderowf, M. Stacy et al., Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients, Arch Neurol, vol.67, pp.589-595, 2010.

D. Weintraub, A. B. Newberg, M. S. Cary, A. D. Siderowf, P. J. Moberg et al., Striatal dopamine transporter imaging correlates with anxiety and depression symptoms in Parkinson's disease, J Nucl Med, vol.46, pp.227-232, 2005.

D. Weintraub, A. D. Siderowf, M. N. Potenza, J. Goveas, K. H. Morales et al., Association of dopamine agonist use with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease, Arch Neurol, vol.63, pp.969-973, 2006.

D. Weintraub, T. Simuni, C. Caspell-garcia, C. Coffey, S. Lasch et al., Cognitive performance and neuropsychiatric symptoms in early, untreated Parkinson's disease, Mov Disord, vol.30, pp.919-927, 2015.

W. K. Weintraub, J. Potenza, M. N. Siderwof, A. D. Stacy, M. Voon et al.,

G. R. Lang and A. E. , Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, Arch Neurol, vol.67, pp.589-595, 2010.

B. H. Westerink and S. J. Spaan, Estimation of the turnover of 3-methoxytyramine in the rat striatum by HPLC with electrochemical detection: implications for the sequence in the cerebral metabolism of dopamine, J Neurochem, vol.38, pp.342-347, 1982.

M. C. Weston, H. Chen, and J. W. Swann, Multiple roles for mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission, J Neurosci, vol.32, pp.11441-11452, 2012.

S. P. Whiteside and D. R. Lynam, The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity, Personality and Individual Differences, vol.30, pp.669-689, 2001.

S. P. Whiteside, The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personnality and individual differences, vol.30, pp.669-689, 2001.

C. A. Winstanley, R. K. Bachtell, D. E. Theobald, S. Laali, T. A. Green et al., Increased impulsivity during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration: role for DeltaFosB in the orbitofrontal cortex, Cereb Cortex, vol.19, pp.435-444, 2009.

C. A. Winstanley, C. Baunez, D. E. Theobald, and T. W. Robbins, Lesions to the subthalamic nucleus decrease impulsive choice but impair autoshaping in rats: the importance of the basal ganglia in Pavlovian conditioning and impulse control, Eur J Neurosci, vol.21, pp.3107-3116, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01384892

C. A. Winstanley, D. E. Theobald, R. N. Cardinal, and T. W. Robbins, Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice, J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.4718-4722, 2004.

C. A. Winstanley, D. E. Theobald, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, Interactions between serotonin and dopamine in the control of impulsive choice in rats: therapeutic implications for impulse control disorders, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.30, pp.669-682, 2005.

C. A. Winstanley, F. D. Zeeb, A. Bedard, K. Fu, B. Lai et al., Dopaminergic modulation of the orbitofrontal cortex affects attention, motivation and impulsive responding in rats performing the five-choice serial reaction time task, Behav Brain Res, vol.210, pp.263-272, 2010.

R. A. Wise, Catecholamine theories of reward: a critical review, Brain Res, vol.152, pp.215-247, 1978.

R. A. Wise, Roles for nigrostriatal--not just mesocorticolimbic--dopamine in reward and addiction, Trends Neurosci, vol.32, pp.517-524, 2009.

R. A. Wise and M. A. Bozarth, A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, Psychol Rev, vol.94, pp.469-492, 1987.

R. A. Wise, J. Spindler, H. Dewit, and G. J. Gerberg, Neuroleptic-induced "anhedonia" in rats: pimozide blocks reward quality of food, Science, vol.201, pp.262-264, 1978.

S. P. Wise, Forward frontal fields: phylogeny and fundamental function, Trends Neurosci, vol.31, pp.599-608, 2008.

I. B. Witten, E. E. Steinberg, S. Y. Lee, T. J. Davidson, K. A. Zalocusky et al., Recombinase-driver rat lines: tools, techniques, and optogenetic application to dopamine-mediated reinforcement, Neuron, vol.72, pp.721-733, 2011.

M. Wittmann and M. P. Paulus, Decision making, impulsivity and time perception, Trends Cogn Sci, vol.12, pp.7-12, 2008.

Y. Worbe, G. Savulich, V. Voon, E. Fernandez-egea, and T. W. Robbins, Serotonin depletion induces 'waiting impulsivity' on the human four-choice serial reaction time task: cross-species translational significance, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.39, pp.1519-1526, 2014.

C. A. Worby and J. E. Dixon, Pten. Annu Rev Biochem, vol.83, pp.641-669, 2014.

C. I. Wright, A. V. Beijer, and H. J. Groenewegen, Basal amygdaloid complex afferents to the rat nucleus accumbens are compartmentally organized, J Neurosci, vol.16, pp.1877-1893, 1996.

Y. Wu, S. Richard, and A. Parent, The organization of the striatal output system: a single-cell juxtacellular labeling study in the rat, Neurosci Res, vol.38, pp.49-62, 2000.

S. A. Wylie, K. R. Ridderinkhof, W. J. Elias, R. C. Frysinger, T. R. Bashore et al., Subthalamic nucleus stimulation influences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson's disease, Brain, vol.133, pp.3611-3624, 2010.

H. Yamada, N. Matsumoto, and M. Kimura, Tonically active neurons in the primate caudate nucleus and putamen differentially encode instructed motivational outcomes of action, J Neurosci, vol.24, pp.3500-3510, 2004.

T. Yamaguchi, W. Sheen, and M. Morales, Glutamatergic neurons are present in the rat ventral tegmental area, Eur J Neurosci, vol.25, pp.106-118, 2007.

T. Yamaguchi, H. L. Wang, X. Li, T. H. Ng, and M. Morales, Mesocorticolimbic glutamatergic pathway, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.8476-8490, 2011.

T. Yamaguchi, H. L. Wang, and M. Morales, Glutamate neurons in the substantia nigra compacta and retrorubral field, Eur J Neurosci, vol.38, pp.3602-3610, 2013.

Z. Yan and D. J. Surmeier, D5 dopamine receptors enhance Zn2+-sensitive GABA(A) currents in striatal cholinergic interneurons through a PKA/PP1 cascade, Neuron, vol.19, pp.1115-1126, 1997.

B. Yang, R. C. Chan, X. Zou, J. Jing, J. Mai et al., Time perception deficit in children with ADHD, Brain Res, vol.1170, pp.90-96, 2007.

H. Yang, D. G. Rudge, J. D. Koos, B. Vaidialingam, H. J. Yang et al., mTOR kinase structure, mechanism and regulation, Nature, vol.497, pp.217-223, 2013.

J. R. Yates, J. L. Perry, A. C. Meyer, C. D. Gipson, R. Charnigo et al., Role of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal monoamine transporters and receptors in performance in an adjusting delay discounting procedure, Brain Res, vol.1574, pp.26-36, 2014.

Y. H. Yau and M. N. Potenza, Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment, Harv Rev Psychiatry, vol.23, pp.134-146, 2015.

L. Yetnikoff, A. Y. Cheng, H. N. Lavezzi, K. P. Parsley, and D. S. Zahm, Sources of input to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and lateral habenula compared: A study in rat, J Comp Neurol, vol.523, pp.2426-2456, 2015.

H. H. Yin, B. J. Knowlton, and B. W. Balleine, Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning, Eur J Neurosci, vol.19, pp.181-189, 2004.

H. H. Yin, B. J. Knowlton, and B. W. Balleine, Blockade of NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum prevents action-outcome learning in instrumental conditioning, Eur J Neurosci, vol.22, pp.505-512, 2005.

H. H. Yin, S. B. Ostlund, B. J. Knowlton, and B. W. Balleine, The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning, Eur J Neurosci, vol.22, pp.513-523, 2005.

I. A. Yun, S. M. Nicola, and H. L. Fields, Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior, Eur J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.249-263, 2004.

K. K. Yung, J. P. Bolam, A. D. Smith, S. M. Hersch, B. J. Ciliax et al., Immunocytochemical localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of the rat: light and electron microscopy, Neuroscience, vol.65, pp.709-730, 1995.

D. S. Zahm and J. S. Brog, On the significance of subterritories in the "accumbens" part of the rat ventral striatum, Neuroscience, vol.50, pp.751-767, 1992.

D. S. Zahm and J. S. Brog, On the significance of subterritories in the "accumbens" part of the rat ventral striatum, Neuroscience, vol.50, pp.751-767, 1992.

D. S. Zahm and L. Heimer, Two transpallidal pathways originating in the rat nucleus accumbens, J Comp Neurol, vol.302, pp.437-446, 1990.

D. S. Zahm, E. Williams, and C. Wohltmann, Ventral striatopallidothalamic projection: IV. Relative involvements of neurochemically distinct subterritories in the ventral pallidum and adjacent parts of the rostroventral forebrain, J Comp Neurol, vol.364, pp.340-362, 1996.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.902550410

K. A. Zalocusky, C. Ramakrishnan, T. N. Lerner, T. J. Davidson, B. Knutson et al., Nucleus accumbens D2R cells signal prior outcomes and control risky decision-making, Nature, vol.531, pp.642-646, 2016.

A. Zapata, B. Kivell, Y. Han, J. A. Javitch, E. A. Bolan et al., Regulation of dopamine transporter function and cell surface expression by D3 dopamine receptors, J Biol Chem, vol.282, pp.35842-35854, 2007.

A. Zapata and T. S. Shippenberg, D(3) receptor ligands modulate extracellular dopamine clearance in the nucleus accumbens, J Neurochem, vol.81, pp.1035-1042, 2002.

A. Zapata, J. M. Witkin, and T. S. Shippenberg, Selective D3 receptor agonist effects of (+)-PD 128907 on dialysate dopamine at low doses, Neuropharmacology, vol.41, pp.351-359, 2001.

F. D. Zeeb and C. A. Winstanley, Lesions of the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex differentially affect acquisition and performance of a rodent gambling task, J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.2197-2204, 2011.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, Y. Ma, Y. Song, R. Lin et al., Activation of D1R/PKA/mTOR signaling cascade in medial prefrontal cortex underlying the antidepressant effects of l-SPD, 2017.

Q. Y. Zhou and R. D. Palmiter, Dopamine-deficient mice are severely hypoactive, adipsic, and aphagic, Cell, vol.83, pp.1197-1209, 1995.

P. J. Zhu, C. J. Chen, J. Mays, L. Stoica, and M. Costa-mattioli, mTORC2, but not mTORC1, is required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors, Nat Neurosci, vol.21, pp.799-802, 2018.

M. Zuckerman and K. Link, Résumé : Au-delà des symptômes moteurs, la maladie de Parkinson (MP) est également caractérisée par une myriade de symptômes neuropsychiatriques allant de l'apathie, J Consult Clin Psychol, vol.32, pp.420-426, 1968.