Capacités d’adaptations tendineuses à l’entraînement : effet de l'âge

Abstract : The ability to maintain balance has previously been associated with the structure and mechanical properties of the tendons of the lower limb. In order to evaluate the effects of training intensity (moderate vs. high intensity) and age on changes in tendon architecture (Achilles and patellar) and its mechanical properties, 10 young men and 27 sedentary seniors participated in a 12-week resistance training program (3 times/week) on the muscles of the triceps surae (TS) an quadriceps (QF). The young group and a senior group participated in a moderate training program corresponding to 55% of IRM (maximum repetition), while a second group of seniors received a training intensity of 80% of IRM. Each group received the same volume of training on the TS and QF muscles using guided weight machines. The use of ergometers, ultrasound and MRI images and a motion capture system were required. A decrease in strength, coupled or not depending on the tendon under consideration, and a decrease in the properties of the tendon material have been quantified with age. Evolution curves of each of the QF and TS muscles for both populations were constructed. The two training conditions showed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the Achilles and patellar tendons, and more significantly the Achilles, on both populations without any additional gain for a high intensity. Similar gains after training between the two intensities could be observed in seniors on muscle volumes. The improvement of postural stability and an evolution of the strategy during a chair lift were observed in seniors without any additional benefit between the two training intensities. This made it possible to quantify the effects of age on muscle, tendon and movement abilities by highlighting a threshold of training intensity (55% of IRM) from which seniors do not seem to show any additional gain. This work therefore makes it possible to propose an optimization of the physical activity prescribed to the elderly person
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Adrien Létocart. Capacités d’adaptations tendineuses à l’entraînement : effet de l'âge. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018COMP2465⟩. ⟨tel-02137443⟩

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