Mécanismes d'optimisation des performances des processeurs VLIW à tolérance de fautes

Abstract : Embedded processors in critical domains require a combination of reliability, performance and low energy consumption. Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) processors provide performance improvements through Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP) exploitation, while keeping cost and power in low levels. Since the ILP is highly application dependent, the processor does not use all its resources constantly and, thus, these resources can be utilized for redundant instruction execution. This thesis presents a fault injection methodology for VLIW processors and three hardware mechanisms to deal with soft, permanent and long-term faults leading to three contributions. The first contribution presents an Architectural Vulnerability Factor (AVF) and Instruction Vulnerability Factor (IVF) analysis schema for VLIW processors. A fault injection methodology at different memory structures is proposed to extract the architectural/instruction masking capabilities of the processor. A high-level failure classification schema is presented to categorize the output of the processor. The second contribution explores heterogeneous idle resources at run-time both inside and across consecutive instruction bundles. To achieve this, a hardware optimized instruction scheduling technique is applied in parallel with the pipeline to efficiently control the replication and the scheduling of the instructions. Following the trends of increasing parallelization, a cluster-based design is also proposed to tackle the issues of scalability, while maintaining a reasonable area/power overhead. The proposed technique achieves a speed-up of 43.68% in performance with a ~10% area and power overhead over existing approaches. AVF and IVF analysis evaluate the vulnerability of the processor with the proposed mechanism.The third contribution deals with persistent faults. A hardware mechanism is proposed which replicates at run-time the instructions and schedules them at the idle slots considering the resource constraints. If a resource becomes faulty, the proposed approach efficiently rebinds both the original and replicated instructions during execution. Early evaluation performance results show up to 49\% performance gain over existing techniques.In order to further decrease the performance overhead and to support single and multiple Long-Duration Transient (LDT) error mitigation a fourth contribution is presented. We propose a hardware mechanism, which detects the faults that are still active during execution and re-schedules the instructions to use not only the healthy function units, but also the fault-free components of the affected function units. When the fault faints, the affected function unit components can be reused. The scheduling window of the proposed mechanism is two instruction bundles being able to explore mitigation solutions in the current and the next instruction execution. The obtained fault injection results show that the proposed approach can mitigate a large number of faults with low performance, area, and power overhead.
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Rafail Psiakis. Mécanismes d'optimisation des performances des processeurs VLIW à tolérance de fautes. Embedded Systems. Université Rennes 1, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1S095⟩. ⟨tel-02137404⟩

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