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Caractérisation physique et perceptive de différentes compositions de trafic routier urbain pour la détermination d'indicateurs de gêne en situation de mono-exposition et de multi-exposition

Abstract : Road traffic noise, and in particular powered two-wheeler noise, constitute an important source of noise annoyance. In order to estimate the noise exposure in cities of more than 100 000 inhabitants, the European directive 2002/49/EC requires the elaboration of strategic noise maps, based on the Lden index. This index is also used in exposureresponse relationships, to predict the percentages of annoyed people, by road traffic noise for example. By coupling strategic noise maps and these exposure-response relationships, noise annoyance maps could be established. The relevance of this index to predict noise annoyance in cities is however often questioned, since many influential acoustical factors (e.g. spectral and temporal features) are not considered by this index. The aim of this thesis is to enhance the characterization of noise annoyance due to different compositions of urban road traffic including powered two-wheelers. To achieve this goal, experiments were carried out under controlled conditions. A first study concerned the influence of several acoustical features related to quiet periods and vehicle pass-by noises on the annoyance due to urban road traffic noise. This study demonstrated the influence of the presence of quiet periods and of the number of vehicles within the urban road traffic and to the absence of the influence of the order of the vehicle pass-by noises, the position and duration of quiet periods. These results were used to carry out the physical and perceptual characterization of different compositions of urban road traffic noise. Multilevel regression was used to calculate noise annoyance, by coupling combinations of indices relating to influential acoustical features and an individual factor: noise sensitivity. In cities, road traffic noise is often combined with other noises. In the framework of this thesis, noise exposure to road traffic noise combined with aircraft noise was studied. Therefore, the same work as the one performed for urban road traffic noise was carried out for aircraft noise, leading also to relevant combinations of noise indices. In order to characterize annoyances due to road traffic noise and to aircraft noise in a combined exposure situation, data from the previous experiments and from an experiment dealing with these combined noises were used through an appropriate multilevel regression, as done in literature. The regression allows annoyance models for each noise source to be proposed. Then, total annoyance due to combined noises was studied, in order to highlight the perceptual phenomena related to the combined exposure. Total noise annoyance models were proposed, using proposed annoyance model of each noise source. Finally, these single source annoyance models and total annoyance models were tested using data of a socio-acoustic survey. To do this, a methodology has been proposed to estimate the different indices involved in the annoyance models, from the Lden values obtained from the strategic noise maps and used to define the noise exposure of the respondents. This confrontation showed that the models proposed on the basis of experiments carried out under laboratory conditions and coupled with a methodology of estimation of the noise indices from Lden values, enabled a good prediction of in situ annoyance.
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Laure-Anne Gille. Caractérisation physique et perceptive de différentes compositions de trafic routier urbain pour la détermination d'indicateurs de gêne en situation de mono-exposition et de multi-exposition. Acoustique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSET005⟩. ⟨tel-02134165⟩

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