Atteintes du système musculo-squelettique par deux arbovirus émergents : cas des virus zika et du chikungunya

Abstract : Musculoskeletal lesions caused by arthropod-borne-viruses (arboviruses) are invalidating for patients and remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the development of these manifestations after infection with two arboviruses: chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from the Togaviridae family, and Zika virus (ZIKV) from the Flaviviridae family. The first part of the study focused on arthritis following CHIKV infection. For this purpose, we developed a reporter virus expressing NanoLuciferase and performed experimental infections in a murine model. In vivo, a strong bioluminescent signal indicated viral replication and we observed persistence of the signal in the joints up to 34 days post-infection. By isolating primary murine cells from cartilage, we demonstrated the susceptibility of chondrocytes to CHIKV infection suggesting a role of reservoir of these cells. Furthermore, we investigated the consequences of the infection using in vitro models. We showed that primary human chondrocytes are also susceptible to CHIKV infection, which leads to the production of several cytokines involved in cartilage catabolism and induces apoptosis. In the second part of the study, we studied ZIKV muscular tropism and the associated lesions. Firstly, we confirmed the development of muscular lesions in a mouse model of ZIKA. Then, using human primary muscle cells we observed the infection of myoblasts but not myotubes, suggesting a differentiation-dependent tropism. We compared three viral strains and observed no significant difference in terms of replication, number of infected cells and viral production. Myoblasts infection induced a caspase-independent cells death mechanism and electronic microscope observations revealed intense vacuolization of cytoplasm, suggesting a paraptosis-like cell death. Proteomic analysis revealed that the Asian ZIKV strain modulated protein expression of infected cells with an increased effect after 48 hours. ZIKV-infection induced an important upregulation of biological processes associated with type I interferon and an inhibition of protein synthesis in the infected cells. These results provide valuable information about the mechanisms involved in the development of musculoskeletal lesions during arboviroses
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Vincent Legros. Atteintes du système musculo-squelettique par deux arbovirus émergents : cas des virus zika et du chikungunya. Virologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC226⟩. ⟨tel-02133642v1⟩

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