Assemblage de répétitions de la séquence 601 dans le génome de Saccharomyces cerevisiae pour dicter l'espacement des nucléosomes in vivo

Abstract : Nucleosome positioning along eukaryotic genomes is crucial as it influences DNA accessibility for DNA binding proteins involved in DNA replication, transcription and repair. It is now accepted that both nucleosome preferences for some DNA sequences and remodeling factors play an important role in nucleosome positioning in vivo. However their relative importance remains a matter of debate. To investigate the role played by DNA sequence in nucleosome positioning in a cellular context we developped a strategy to assemble tandem DNA repeats of a nucleosome positioning sequence directly into Saccharomyces cerevisiae’s genome. This method is assisted by CRISPR/Cas9 and overlapping oligonucleotides and it turned out to be very efficient as it allowed to synthetize about 15 kilobases of tandem DNA repeats inside a yeast chromosome. Using this apporoach we obtained three yeast strains differing by the DNA linker length separating two consecutive monomeres of the 601 nucleosome positioning sequence. We chose three lengths of linker (20, 50 and 90 pb) for two reasons. First, they are compatible with the formation of a 30 nm chromatin fiber in vitro, and second, nucleosome repeat length of 167, 197 and 237 pb are found in eukaryotic genomes. We then verified if nucleosomes are effectively positioned according to the theoretic DNA linker lengths we designed in the “601” repeated region. To that goal we performed MNase-seq analysis to deduce nucleosomes dyads positions in the repeats. Interestingly our results show that the 601 sequence is not able to dictate strong nucleosomes positioning differing from the natural nucleosome repeat length of about 165 pb along the repeats in an in vivo context. We further investigated positions of dyads in the same three strains after inactivating the gene coding for the chromatin remodeler Chd1, which could potentially be responsible of the nucleosomes organization in the repeated area. Our results show no effect of Chd1, indicating that the “601” sequence has no positionning effect in vivo or that other trans-acting factors are implicated in nucleosome positioning in the engineered repeats. Finally, this work provides a new fast and simple approach for synthetic DNA repeats construction inside the yeast genome and could easily be applied for other synthetic chromatin engineering approaches.
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Astrid Lancrey. Assemblage de répétitions de la séquence 601 dans le génome de Saccharomyces cerevisiae pour dicter l'espacement des nucléosomes in vivo. Génétique. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0001⟩. ⟨tel-02133591v2⟩

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