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Évaluation de la contribution fonctionnelle des espèces lombriciennes anéciques à la décomposition des litières prairiales : variabilité inter-espèces au sein d'une même catégorie écologique

Abstract : Litter decomposition is a key process in soil functioning that contributes to many ecosystem services. In temperate climates, earthworms interacting with soil microorganisms contribute significantly to this process. However, knowledge about earthworms most often targets the three ecological categories in which they are defined: epigeics, endogeics and anecics. Anecics are very common in temperate soils, constitute the major part of the earthworm biomass and are involved in the litter decomposition. Several studies have observed behavioral, morphological and physiological traits that distinguish two subcategories within anecics: epi-anecics and strict-anecics. The first objective of this thesis was to verify if this distinction had a reality in the context of the litter decomposition process. Under controlled conditions, we evaluated (i) the role of the main anecic earthworm species in the decomposition process, (ii) the impact of these species on microorganism communities and (iii) soil enzymatic activities and (vi) the impact of interactions between anecic species on the decomposition process. Taking into account their major roles in various soil processes, based on field observations, the second objective of this thesis was to define the assembly of earthworm communities in grassland, The results obtained confirmed the distinction between epi and strict-anecic earthworms: only epic-anecics contribute to the litter decomposition process, which is correlated to the average individual biomass of each species. This contribution involved a greater stimulation of soil enzymatic activities, regardless of the species considered. In contrast to bacteria, soil fungal communities depend on the epi-anecic earthworm species with which they interact. This work also highlights that the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworm communities in grassland soils are regulated by different environmental filters, including landscape diversity. This thesis highlights that the two ecological subcategories within the anecic category have different roles in the litter decomposition process and therefore contribute to ecosystem services provided by the soil in a differentiated way.
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Kevin Hoeffner. Évaluation de la contribution fonctionnelle des espèces lombriciennes anéciques à la décomposition des litières prairiales : variabilité inter-espèces au sein d'une même catégorie écologique. Sciences agricoles. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B062⟩. ⟨tel-02132721⟩

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