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Comment piloter au champ la qualité de la tomate d’industrie ? : impact du déficit hydrique, du génotype et des procédés sur la qualité finale des produits transformés

Abstract : Tomato is the second most consumed vegetable in the world and most of it is consumed in processed form. The industry tomato is typically a demanding crop in water. Production is mainly in the Mediterranean zone, facing increasingly frequent periods of drought, and constrained, in the context of climate change, to reduce the withdrawal of water resources for its agriculture. Water is a major factor affecting the yield and quality of tomatoes, so there is a direct link between upstream agriculture (production) and industrial downstream (processing). Although works to better understand pre-post-harvest links exists, better adapting production to changing climatic constraints remains a challenge for the industry, and it is in this context that this thesis work is located. In this context, the objective of the thesis was to analyze during the chain of production and processing, the impact of agronomic and technological factors on the quality of tomato purées, and to identify during this chain levers to improve the taste, nutritional and environmental of the finished product. Given this objective, this work was constructed to analyze 1) what are the main agronomic and technological factors responsible for the variability of the quality of fresh and processed fruit within the French production areas of industrial tomatoes; 2) what are the effects of variety, water supply, stage of development and process on the quality of fresh fruits and their suitability for processing; 3) what are the processes responsible for the changes in the rheological properties of the purees. Our results showed differences in the quality of fruit and processed products between the two major French industrial tomato production regions in 2015. The choice of cultivar and practices, such as planting density or production cycle time, were responsible for these differences. In the absence of a water deficit, climatic differences (thermal amplitudes and cumulative precipitation) did not seem to be a major factor of variation. Exploration of pre-post-harvest links then confirmed that the commonly used harvest criteria (yield and °Brix) provided little information on the processing ability of tomatoes. In addition, we have shown that decreasing irrigation to replace only 60% of plant evapotranspiration has had little effect on the yield of fresh fruit, and has increased dry matter yield to + 27%, which is positive for the plant. The efficiency of the use of irrigation water has thus been increased by an average of 20% over the entire cycle. The composition of the dry matter of the fruits at harvest was not significantly affected by the water deficit in 2016. On the other hand, when these same fruits were transformed according to industrial processes, the water deficit improved the viscosity of the purees without affecting its color. It also limited the loss of viscosity obtained when the process has a low temperature maceration phase (Cold Break (CB)). This result suggested that the enzymatic reactivity of the tissues was reduced. On the other hand, more drastic water stress in 2017 led to significant differences in dry matter content. As the purees are concentrated to the same SSC content, then the WD purees, which less water has been removed, shows a lower viscosity. The mastery of the dry matter is not the only factor affecting the rheology of purees. It is a complex phenomenon depending on several factors. Indeed, when the differences in viscosity are induced by the cooking method, it is mainly the viscosity of the serum (liquid part of the mash) that is involved. When the viscosity variations are induced by the use of Variety with a high potential for viscosity (Ketchup tomato), it is the size and shape of the particles and their aggregation potential that are involved.
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Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas. Comment piloter au champ la qualité de la tomate d’industrie ? : impact du déficit hydrique, du génotype et des procédés sur la qualité finale des produits transformés. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0701⟩. ⟨tel-02132173⟩

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