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Commande de machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse : Application à la traction ferroviaire

Abstract : The problem of speed sensorless control of induction machine is a well-studied problem in the field of automatic control and electrical engineering. This work addresses the problem of the feasibility of induction machine control over the whole speed range and for any type of induction machine, aiming at being used in a railway application. An intensive study of observability has defined a continuous quantitative measurement of the speed observability, named observability index. An observer was developped to confirme the correspondence between low-observability index areas and poor observation quality. The observability index defined in this thesis is thus a way to predict the observation performance of systems. The main originality of the work presented in this thesis is the use of this observability index in the induction machine speed sensorless drive. By taking advantage of the degree of freedom given by the variation of the flux amplitude, we propose to guarantee the observability index value above a given threshold while respecting the other constraints of the control. The speed observation becomes precise over the entire speed range, and a long time operation is possible on any point, without interfering with torque regulation. Experiments on real-time simulator confirm these results, including when slipping and sliding occurs. The electrical parameter observation is also studied to ensure the accuracy of speed observation. For this, the sensitivity of the speed observation to electrical parameter variations and the observability of these parameters are studied, leading to the definition of the electrical parameter observation strategy. The testings on power bench, and in real application on a regional train, validate the performance of the speed sensorless drive proposed on the entire speed range, and its suitability to the constraints of a railway application.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 16, 2019 - 6:57:29 PM
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Gaëtan Lefebvre. Commande de machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse : Application à la traction ferroviaire. Electronique. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI129⟩. ⟨tel-02132163⟩

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