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Sensibilisation à la douleur chez un modèle murin de troubles du déficit de l'attention et de l'hyperactivité

Abstract : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Neural pathways underlying these deficits point to deficits within frontal-subcortical catecholaminergic networks, involving dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation. Hence, impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission is a frequent target of ADHD medication. Low-dose psychostimulants, including methylphenidate (MpH) and amphetamines (AMP) are the most widely used treatments of ADHD. Recent evidence pointed to pain hypersensitivity in subjects with ADHD history, and suggests possible comorbidity of ADHD with pain. However, the mechanisms and neural circuits involved in these interactions are unknown. In order to understand this comorbidity, the first objective was to create a good animal model of ADHD. We generated a mouse model at P5 by neonatal disruption of central dopaminergic pathways with 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and we demonstrated the validity of the model to mimic ADHD syndrome. Next, we analyzed nociceptive responses in the 6-OHDA mouse model of ADHD. We found that 6-OHDA mice exhibited a marked decrease of withdrawal thresholds, suggesting that ADHD increase nociceptive sensitivity. Interestingly, by using in vivo electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrated that allodynia and hyperalgesia may be caused by neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal spinal cord. Moreover, we found that both lowered wihdrawal threshold and increased activity of nociceptive neurons in ADHD-like mice was not normalized by MpH. We tested the hypothesis that descending controls are responsible for pain alterations through the modulation of spinal circuits. The ‘anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) – posterior insular (PI)’ connectivity is at the cross-road of ADHD and pain, being involved in executive functions and emotions, as well as sending projections to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. By combining electrophysiological, optogenetic and behavioral analyzes, we have shown that the effects of ADHD on painful sensitization involve the implication of ACC and the ACC - PI pathway. In conclusion, we showed that ADHD conditions induce spinal cord nociceptive neurons hyperactivation and pain hypersensitivity. We also suggest that the ACC - PI circuit may trigger dysfunction of spinal cord neurons in ADHD conditions.
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Otmane Bouchatta. Sensibilisation à la douleur chez un modèle murin de troubles du déficit de l'attention et de l'hyperactivité. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université de Bordeaux; Université Cadi Ayyad (Marrakech, Maroc). Faculté des sciences Semlalia, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0356⟩. ⟨tel-02132136⟩

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