Dédifférenciation de la cellule bêta pancréatique humaine

Abstract : Clinical and experimental evidences indicate a reduced functional β cell mass in type 2 diabetes. A recent hypothesis implicates β cell dedifferentiation in this reduction of functional β-cell mass. The vast majority of data related to β cell dedifferentiation derive from rodent models, and only indirect evidences are available in human. Our goal was to model human β-cell dedifferentiation using the functional human pancreatic β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, and primary human pancreatic islets. By screening a number of molecules in EndoC-βH1 cells, we found that FGF2 treatment dramatically reduces insulin production and MAFA expression, a β cell specific transcriptional activator. RNASeq of EndoC-βH1 cells treated with FGF2 revealed the down-regulation of additional human β cell specific markers, including INS, MAFB, SLC2A2, SLC30A8 and GCK. In parallel, FGF2 treatment activated the expression of β cell disallowed genes. This is the case for transcription factors such as MYC, HES1, SOX9 and NEUROG3. This is also the case for hormones such as GASTRIN and PYY. Such data were further confirmed by qPCR and immunostaining on primary human islets, attesting that dedifferentiation process occurs in human primary β cells. FGF2-induced dedifferentiation was time- and dose-dependent, and reversible upon wash-out. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis revealed an increase of TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin) expression upon FGF2 treatment. TNFRSF11B is a decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). Our experimental data on EndoC-βH1 demonstrated that FGF2-induced TNFRSF11B protected β cells against TNFSF11 (RANKL) signaling by preventing P38 phosphorylation. Finally, analyses of transcriptomic data revealed increased FGF2 mRNA levels in ductal, endothelial and stellate cells in pancreases from type 2 diabetic patients, whereas FGFR1, SOX9 and HES1 mRNA levels increased in islets from type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, we developed a robust model to study β-cell dedifferentiation in a human context. We discovered SOX9, HES1 and MYC as positive markers of human β cell dedifferentiation, demonstrating evidence for dedifferentiation process in human β cell.
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Marc Diedisheim. Dédifférenciation de la cellule bêta pancréatique humaine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB074⟩. ⟨tel-02131940⟩

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