Cosmologie et supernovas Ia : influence des vitesses propres et recherche d'anisotropies avec LSST

Abstract : Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) are transient objects, which remains observable in the optical for a period of a few months, and whose luminosity at its maximum is comparable to that of a whole galaxy. They represent, once standardized (i.e. corrected for their main variabilities), an excellent distance indicator and, in 1998, provided the first evidence for the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. This thesis investigates three points in the cosmological SNIa pipeline:First, we focused on the data processing and the quality of the images for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), that will provide data for a number of cosmological observables, including the observation of SNIa. In preparation for LSST (which will start operations in 2020), we carried out a similar data processing strategy on images from a previous survey (deep field of CFHT) and compared to the required parameters of LSST. A dispersion slightly higher than that required was obtained. For photometry, although this excess is small, the sources of this dispersion remain to be understood. For astrometry, the obtained quality is likely to be sufficient when simultaneous astrometry fitting will be implemented.In a second moment, we propose a method to correct the effect of peculiar velocities of SNIa inside galaxy clusters. Indeed, these velocities ​​are more important in the clusters of galaxies, because of the gravitational interactions, and the measurement of the cosmological redshift related to the expansion of the Universe. These peculiar velocities were corrected using a sample of 145 SNIa with a low spectral shift (0.005
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Alexandre Ciulli. Cosmologie et supernovas Ia : influence des vitesses propres et recherche d'anisotropies avec LSST. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC072⟩. ⟨tel-02130462⟩

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