Photochimie et devenir des pesticides utilisés dans les serres agricoles au Liban : effets de mélange, de photosensibilisation et de support

Abstract : The main purpose of this work was to better understand the photochemical behavior of pesticides used in agricultural greenhouses in Menyeh-North Lebanon. The first part was dedicated to the analysis of green peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, plastic films and air samples from these agricultural greenhouses. HPLC-HR-MS was used to quantify and monitor the residues of 4 pesticides: bifenazate (BIF), acetamiprid, imidacloprid and thiophanate methyl (TM) after QUECHERS extraction of the vegetables samples. The quantities of pesticides found within 6 days after spraying were well above the MRLs imposed for each one. Then, the photoproducts of TM, BIF and imidacloprid were identified after rinsing the surface of tomatoes, cucumbers and green peppers. This demonstrated the possibility of photodegradation of pesticides even inside an agricultural greenhouse. Gas phase analysis by GC-MS revealed the presence of terpenes, alkanes and aldehydes as the response of plants to temperature and spraying stresses. In a second part, we studied the photochemical mechanisms of BIF and TM in the laboratory under simulated irradiation. The auto-accelerated photodegradation of TM was reported for the first time. A detailed study enabled us to demonstrate that this auto-acceleration was due to the formation of a photosensitizing photoproduct derived from quinoxaline. The rate of degradation of BIF and the nature of the products were dependent on the medium (ACN, water, wax and green peppers). These results highlighted the effect of support and mixture on the photochemical behavior of pesticides.
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Samar Hamdache. Photochimie et devenir des pesticides utilisés dans les serres agricoles au Liban : effets de mélange, de photosensibilisation et de support. Chimie analytique. Université Clermont Auvergne; Université libanaise, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC071⟩. ⟨tel-02130452⟩

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