Coéducation, coenseignement mixité. Filles et garçons dans l'enseignement secondaire en France (1916-1976)

Abstract : Mixed-sex education in France’s public secondary schools begins with the presence of girls in boys’ institutions in the early 1920s. The practice of mixing sexes in schools developed over the 20th century, and was imposed belatedly in 1976 with the decrees of application of the Haby reform. Before this law, this ''pedagogical revolution'' was applied silently through administrative circulars authorising what was termed coeducation in collèges and lycées for boys. An historical perspective on the evolution of ''coeducation'' requires the examination of the intersection of discourses and practices to unveil the challenges of mixing sexes and the evolving representations related to it. Based on the methods of social and gender history, this dissertation offers new light on the democratisation of secondary education in the 20th century. Through the application of diverse scales of analysis, the dissertation demonstrates how students and families, specialists of education and managers in public administration perceived and experienced the putting into practice of this new way of organising schooling. The mapping of coeducational establishments functioning in the metropolitan space from the 1930s to the mid-1950s offers insights into the location of these schools at a time when the separating of the sexes is still the norm. Adopting a chronological approach, the first section of the research reveals how the experience of coeducation began during the period between the two world wars. Through the analysis of discourses of the period, the second section examines the different perspectives and points of views expressed on the topic of coeducation and the resistance it encountered in different layers of society. Finally, the third section analyzes how the organisation of mixed –sex education evolved from the end of World War II until the mid-1970s. It shows that until the Haby reform, mixed-sex education was used pragmatically, as a tool to address the school-age population’s growth. The history of mixed-sex education in public secondary schools is not only the history of girls’ education; it is also the history of the socially determined relationship between the two sexes. It is the history of students, boys and girls, instructed in the same places, with the same educational programmes, which beyond the ''shared base'' of primary education, opened opportunities in secondary education as well as in higher education.
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Geneviève Pezeu. Coéducation, coenseignement mixité. Filles et garçons dans l'enseignement secondaire en France (1916-1976). Histoire. Université Paris 5 René Descartes, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02129357⟩

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