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Facteurs génétiques, biogéographiques et temporels : quels effets sur la structuration du microbiote de la lignée évolutive M de l'abeille européenne Apis mellifera ?

Abstract : Like many natural species, the European bee (Apis mellifera) faces a threat of biotic and abiotic factors: environment, genetic diversity, parasitism, etc. Each of these factors can potentially influence the communities of microorganisms that constitute the bee's microbiota and evolve with it. The aim of this work was to understand the dynamics and structure of the gut microbiota of the M evolutionary line of A. mellifera according to biogeographic, genetic and temporal factors of bee colonies. This analysis was carried out in the conservatories of this evolutionary line, located in Portugal (A. m. iberiensis), Spain and France (A. m. mellifera) along a North-South and East-West gradient. First, my work has described a hitherto barely understood factor: humidity in hives. It appeared to be stable in our beehives, between 50 and 60% relative humidity all year long, which suggests a hygroregulation by honeybee colonies whatever the periode of year and the populational dynamics inside the nest (i.e. the beehive). We developed a protocol allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of the viral load of bees by flow cytometry. After using it on our colonies, we showed that time influences less viral load than geographical location. Finally, a metagenomic analysis on a target gene (16s rRNA) confirmed the importance of the geographical location of beehives, this time on the structuring of bacterial communities living in guts of honeybees belonging to the M evolutive lineage. In addition, this last analysis has shown the importance to take into account the interaction between factors, which can have a bigger effect when taken together. Finally, perspectives are envisaged, such as the realization of a network of interactants allowing to understand the part of each factor on the bacterial but also pathogens’ communities.
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Iris Eouzan. Facteurs génétiques, biogéographiques et temporels : quels effets sur la structuration du microbiote de la lignée évolutive M de l'abeille européenne Apis mellifera ?. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC073⟩. ⟨tel-02128660⟩

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