Une architecture sous influence - Malte et les architectes et ingénieurs militaires français pendant le règne de Louis XIV (1643-1715) : les choix politiques de l'ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem

Abstract : This doctoral thesis consists of a research-based investigation on the different forms and types of French influence within the strategic politics of the Order of St. John and the gradual loss of Spanish domination in Malta. It examines the French influence on Maltese architecture during the seventeenth century that resulted from this change of allegiance. For this purpose the political, strategic, social and aesthetic factors, as well as the study of the formation and careers of the different personalities involved, are analysed in order to understand the importance of their role on the development of seventeenth century fortifications of the Maltese Islands and on the local architectural idiom. The various connections of the Knights belonging to the three French Langues with the French Court are therefore investigated in their historical context. This is also examined through the frequent correspondence between the Grand Masters and Kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV. The study shows how the arrival on the local scene of eminent French military engineers during the summer of 1645, marks the passage of the Order from the Spanish sphere of influence to the French. The French military engineers were active in the Maltese archipelago since Vauban had put France at the helm of the development of military architecture in the second half of the seventeenth century. The importance of Médéric Blondel, the first French resident engineer, as a catalyst of the development of French influence on Maltese architecture is investigated. The study examines how his influence is reflected on the work of Maltese architects at the end of the seventeenth century and on the classical elements which are introduced into Maltese baroque architecture that is highly influenced by the classical school of French architecture so greatly appreciated by Louis XIV.
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Claude Busuttil. Une architecture sous influence - Malte et les architectes et ingénieurs militaires français pendant le règne de Louis XIV (1643-1715) : les choix politiques de l'ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem. Histoire. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR155⟩. ⟨tel-02128550⟩

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