Elaboration et caractérisation d’un hybride organominéral à base de polycaprolactone et de bioverre sous forme de mousse macroporeuse pour la régénération osseuse

Abstract : The increase in life expectancy results in the decline of seniors’ health conditions and the resurgence of chronic diseases. Among the expressions of senescence, disorders of the musculoskeletal system are particularly disabling and considerably accelerate the state of dependency. This is also the case for young people who suffer from traumatic injuries or pathologic conditions. Thus, about 2.2 million bone grafts are performed worldwide every year. Yet, the level of postoperative complications remains high and is estimated at 15% of surgical operations. These facts outline a major societal concern: animal-based materials present a risk of histocompatibility issues and pathogenicity that may lead to implant failure. This is the reason why research efforts focus on the development of synthetic biomaterials capable of promoting bone regeneration. Currently, commercialised bone substitutes are mainly made of bioactive “ceramics” (calcium phosphates, bioactive glass) that are known to be biocompatible, to spontaneously bond to bone tissues, to promote bone cell adhesion and finally to be bioresorbable. However, despite these remarkable properties, the brittleness of these materials limits their applications. An ingenious solution to this brittleness can be learned from the particular structure of bone tissue. Bone tissue intimately blends an inorganic phase, the bone mineral, which is made of apatite crystals (resorbable calcium phosphates), with an organic phase that is mainly collagen. Such a structure associates the stiffness of the inorganic part with the toughness of collagen fibres. Therefore, in order to obtain implants with mechanical properties similar to that of bone, the strategy consists in combining bioactive ceramics with organic matter. To this end, the Biomatériaux team from the Laboratoire de Physique de Clermont (LPC) recently developed an innovative process that allows the synthesis of tridimensional organic-inorganic hybrids comprised of bioactive glass and biocompatible polymer. The objective of the thesis was to exploit this process in order to develop a hybrid bone substitute with optimal properties. First of all, polycaprolactone was selected as the polymer, especially because of its adequate degradation rate for long-term applications such as bone regeneration. Then, the synthesis process was improved (in particular, the calcium source was changed), the macroporous structure was optimised and the organic-inorganic ratio was chosen. Afterwards, elements that are known to induce an osteogenic effect were incorporated in the hybrid at low doses (< 5% of total weight): an inorganic doping was performed using strontium ions and an organic doping was performed using nutrients such as fisetin or hydroxytyrosol. The resultant hybrid scaffolds were eventually characterised in vitro in order to determine their physicochemical and biological properties and in vivo in order to evaluate their performance. After 3 months of implantation in a mouse calvarial critical defect, results demonstrate the potential of this bone substitute: compared to the reference commercial material (treated bovine bone) that leads to a bone reconstruction of 16% (± 5%), the hybrid allows a reconstruction going from 32% (± 3%) when it is not doped, to 55% (± 7%) and even 58% (± 7%) when it is doped respectively with fisetin or strontium. This thesis paves the way to promising perspectives like the association of doping agents and the 3D printing of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds.
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Cédric Bossard. Elaboration et caractérisation d’un hybride organominéral à base de polycaprolactone et de bioverre sous forme de mousse macroporeuse pour la régénération osseuse. Chimie thérapeutique. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC068⟩. ⟨tel-02128441⟩

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