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Energy and conformational landscape of Synaptotagmin-1 interacting with membranes

Abstract : Upon arrival of an action potential at the neuronal synapse, calcium ions (Ca2+) enter the neuron, allowing soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) proteins to fully zipper, leading to the fusion of pre-docked synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters with the plasma membrane of the neurone. Regulatory proteins such as Complexin and Synaptotagmin are closely coupled to SNAREs during synaptic vesicle fusion and lead to synchronous, fast fusion. Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) is a transmembrane protein found in synaptic vesicles and is the Ca2+ sensor for synaptic transmission. Syt1 has two Ca2+ binding domains, C2A and C2B, with a flexible linker domain from the membrane region to C2A, and a short linker between C2A and C2B. A polybasic patch in C2B has been shown to bind to anionic lipids such as phophidylserine (PS) and phosphisotinol (PIP2) in the absence of Ca2+. Upon Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ ions bind in C2A and C2B. Ca2+ binding to Syt1 allows non-polar residues nearby the Ca2+ binding sites to insert into the membrane. While these mechanisms are relatively well-accepted, the precise biochemical and biophysical mechanisms for the Syt1 Ca2+ trigger remain unclear. In this work, we directly measure the interactions of Syt1-coated membranes with anionic membranes including PS and PIP2 lipids by the surface forces apparatus (SFA) technique, in order to mimic a Syt1-coated synaptic vesicle membrane interacting with the anionic plasma membrane. We perform site directed mutagenesis of the Ca2+ binding sites of C2A and C2B, along with the polybasic patch in C2B, to fully map the site-binding energetics of Syt1 with membranes, both in the absence and presence of divalent ions. We find that Syt1 binds with ~6 kBT in EGTA, ~10 kBT in Mg2+, and ~18 kBT in Ca2+. Molecular rearrangements measured during confinement of Syt1 between membranes are more prevalent in Ca2+ and Mg2+ and suggest that Syt1 initially binds through C2B, then reorients the C2 domains into the preferred binding configuration. Neutralization of C2B Ca2+ binding site leads to a drastic decrease of Syt1 binding energy in Ca2+, while the same mutation in C2A has a milder effect. These results illuminate that C2A and C2B cooperate in membrane binding, with an apparent predominant role of C2B.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02128333, version 1

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Clémence Gruget. Energy and conformational landscape of Synaptotagmin-1 interacting with membranes. Human health and pathology. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEE031⟩. ⟨tel-02128333⟩

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