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Impact du VEGF sur les altérations synaptiques dans la maladie d’Alzheimer

Abstract : Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive abilities. Amyloid-ß oligomers (Aßo) trigger synapse dysfunction through defects in glutamate receptor function and subsequent dendritic spine loss. These synaptic impairments compromise memory and contribute to cognitive deficits.Our recent findings revealed that VEGF facilitates synaptic plasticity and memory in mice through its VEGFR2 receptor in neurons. We showed that VEGF promotes glutamate receptor synaptic insertion and stimulates dendritic spine formation, suggesting it may be a key candidate for alleviating synapse damage in AD.Our objective is to study the role of VEGF in synapse protection in AD models and unravel the underlying mechanisms.First, we examined the VEGF expression pattern in postmortem brain tissue from AD patients and APPPS1 model of AD. Our results showed a partial colocalization between VEGF and Aß plaques in AD patients and APPPS1 brains.To further investigate the Aß-VEGF interaction, we used Elisa assay and peptide arrays and demonstrated that Aßo binds several domains of VEGF, impedding VEGFR2 activation.Finally, we examined whether VEGF can prevent synapse damage induced by Aßo using electrophysiological, biochemical and 3D modelling approaches. Our results demonstrated that VEGF treatments can restore LTP in Aßo-treated hippocampal slices, glutamate receptor content at synapses and increase dendritic spine density.All together, our results suggest that Aß-VEGF interaction may alter VEGF pathway in AD and that VEGF reduces Aßo-induced toxicity at synapses by modulating glutamate receptor expression and promoting spine formation and/or stabilization
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Laurent Martin. Impact du VEGF sur les altérations synaptiques dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. Neurosciences. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1265⟩. ⟨tel-02127969⟩

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