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Fouille de données pour l'extraction de profils d'usage et la prévision dans le domaine de l'énergie

Abstract : Nowadays, countries are called upon to take measures aimed at a better rationalization of electricity resources with a view to sustainable development. Smart Metering solutions have been implemented and now allow a fine reading of consumption. The massive spatio-temporal data collected can thus help to better understand consumption behaviors, be able to forecast them and manage them precisely. The aim is to be able to ensure "intelligent" use of resources to consume less and consume better, for example by reducing consumption peaks or by using renewable energy sources. The thesis work takes place in this context and aims to develop data mining tools in order to better understand electricity consumption behaviors and to predict solar energy production, then enabling intelligent energy management.The first part of the thesis focuses on the classification of typical electrical consumption behaviors at the scale of a building and then a territory. In the first case, an identification of typical daily power consumption profiles was conducted based on the functional K-means algorithm and a Gaussian mixture model. On a territorial scale and in an unsupervised context, the aim is to identify typical electricity consumption profiles of residential users and to link these profiles to contextual variables and metadata collected on users. An extension of the classical Gaussian mixture model has been proposed. This allows exogenous variables such as the type of day (Saturday, Sunday and working day,...) to be taken into account in the classification, thus leading to a parsimonious model. The proposed model was compared with classical models and applied to an Irish database including both electricity consumption data and user surveys. An analysis of the results over a monthly period made it possible to extract a reduced set of homogeneous user groups in terms of their electricity consumption behaviors. We have also endeavoured to quantify the regularity of users in terms of consumption as well as the temporal evolution of their consumption behaviors during the year. These two aspects are indeed necessary to evaluate the potential for changing consumption behavior that requires a demand response policy (shift in peak consumption, for example) set up by electricity suppliers.The second part of the thesis concerns the forecast of solar irradiance over two time horizons: short and medium term. To do this, several approaches have been developed, including autoregressive statistical approaches for modelling time series and machine learning approaches based on neural networks, random forests and support vector machines. In order to take advantage of the different models, a hybrid model combining the different models was proposed. An exhaustive evaluation of the different approaches was conducted on a large database including four locations (Carpentras, Brasilia, Pamplona and Reunion Island), each characterized by a specific climate as well as weather parameters: measured and predicted using NWP models (Numerical Weather Predictions). The results obtained showed that the hybrid model improves the results of photovoltaic production forecasts for all locations
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Fateh Melzi. Fouille de données pour l'extraction de profils d'usage et la prévision dans le domaine de l'énergie. Recherche d'information [cs.IR]. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1123⟩. ⟨tel-02127788⟩

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