Les visages des sportifs : analyse des expressions faciales et des sous-rôles sociomoteurs par des observateurs selectionnés

Abstract : More than forty years ago, Parlebas (1970) affirmed: « affectivity is the key to motor skill ». Many studies have concentrated on the verbalization of emotions in sports context? Before the game or after the game, the sportsman determines what he feels. Is it possible to suggest an approach that would come in line with existing ones in order to be interested in the emotions that arises during motor action? The aim of this work is to implement an observational methodology that preserves the ecological character of sport’s emotion. We consider it from the deciphering of the emotional mimics and the actions of the player. In support of the work of Frijda and Tcherkassof (1997), Tcherkassof (2008), Parlebas (1999), Collard (2004), Oboeuf (2010), we decrypt the emotions and the motor sub-role of player using facial expressions and tendency to action. As a first step, we create a test for recognition of sport’s facial expressions. We submit it to sport students in order to objectify capacities of decoding the faces. We see that the sporting specialty has an impact on performance. The results suggest that specialists in cooperative activities are good decoders. The opposition specialists "with limited motor aggressiveness" are quite good. The fighters are poor decoders despite they fully recognize the fear. Specialists in psychomotor activities are rather bad but not very much related to this skill of decoding. In a second step, we use the excellent decoders selected by our test so that they analyze videos of sportsmen in motor action. Thanks to an embedded camera, the faces of each player can be recorded and analyzed in two sociomotor games: the seated ball and the bear and his keeper. In a situational analysis grid, trained and selected observers retranscribe the prototypical facial expressions of an emotion and the sociomotor sub-roles that the player updates (Oboeuf, 2010). This grid is an emotional ludogram (Parlebas, 1999). The second type of results collected thought that method invite us to think that there are typical emotions inherent to certain actions. Before a sub-role, anger is related to powerful striking or shooting, while fear is interconnected with dodging. Following a replacement or a favorable brand interaction, the joy is a return on the game’s aim and the pain is consented by the play contract. As a process, the emotion allows the athlete to choose the driving behavior that he must implement. As a result of action, emotions are information about reaching the goal of the game. All of our results invite us to validate this methodology. It will now be necessary to repeat this type of study in many sports.
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Loïc Lecroisey. Les visages des sportifs : analyse des expressions faciales et des sous-rôles sociomoteurs par des observateurs selectionnés. Psychologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB096⟩. ⟨tel-02127782⟩

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