Localisation précise d'un véhicule par couplage vision/capteurs embarqués/systèmes d'informations géographiques

Abstract : The fusion between sensors and databases whose errors are independant is the most re-liable and therefore most widespread solution to the localization problem. Current autonomousand semi-autonomous vehicles, as well as augmented reality applications targeting industrialcontexts exploit large sensor and database graphs that are difficult and expensive to synchro-nize and calibrate. Thus, the democratization of these technologies requires the exploration ofthe possiblity of exploiting low-cost and easily accessible sensors and databases. These infor-mation sources are naturally tainted by higher uncertainty levels, and many obstacles to theireffective and efficient practical usage persist. Moreover, the recent but dazzling successes ofdeep neural networks in various tasks seem to indicate that they could be a viable and low-costalternative to some components of current SLAM systems.In this thesis, we focused on large-scale localization of a vehicle in a georeferenced co-ordinate frame from a low-cost system, which is based on the fusion between a monocularvideo stream, 3d non-textured but georeferenced building models, terrain elevation models anddata either from a low-cost GPS or from vehicle odometry. Our work targets the resolutionof two problems. The first one is related to the fusion via barrier term optimization of VS-LAM and positioning measurements provided by a low-cost GPS. This method is, to the bestof our knowledge, the most robust against GPS uncertainties, but it is more demanding in termsof computational resources. We propose an algorithmic optimization of that approach basedon the definition of a novel barrier term. The second problem is the data association problembetween the primitives that represent the geometry of the scene (e.g. 3d points) and the 3d buil-ding models. Previous works in that area use simple geometric criteria and are therefore verysensitive to occlusions in urban environments. We exploit deep convolutional neural networksin order to identify and associate elements from the map that correspond to 3d building mo-del façades. Although our contributions are for the most part independant from the underlyingSLAM system, we based our experiments on constrained key-frame based bundle adjustment.The solutions that we propose are evaluated on synthetic sequences as well as on real urbandatasets. These experiments show important performance gains for VSLAM/GPS fusion, andconsiderable improvements in the robustness of building constraints to occlusions.
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Achkan Salehi. Localisation précise d'un véhicule par couplage vision/capteurs embarqués/systèmes d'informations géographiques. Vision par ordinateur et reconnaissance de formes [cs.CV]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC064⟩. ⟨tel-02127516⟩

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