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Optimization of physical chemistry of the Pt/Ru/PbZrTiO3 interface for future high capacitance density devices

Abstract : The growing need for the integration of an increasing number of functions into the new generation of portable devices contributes to overcrowding of printed circuit boards. In this context, the miniaturization of discrete components is imperative to maintain a manageable size of the printed circuit boards. Decoupling capacitors are one of the most important such discrete components. Miniaturization requires an increase of capacitance density, involving the integration of high-density capacitors. The success of such integration relies on the use of both high dielectric permittivity materials and a suitable stacking architecture. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in decoupling multiple metal-insulator-metal (multi-MIM) stacks is a good candidate for the new generation of integrated capacitors. The multi-MIM technology consists in stacking two or more PZT film-based MIM structures connected in parallel in order to increase the density of the capacitance without any effective surface area change. Device performance is heavily affected by the quality of the interface with the electrodes, so it is important to engineer interface chemistry which does not degrade the multi-MIM performance.This thesis, supported by the French “Programme de l’économie numérique des investissements d’Avenir” addresses two aspects of development aiming to improve the quality of the Pt/Ru/PZT interfaces: the first one concerns the optimization of Pb excess content in the PZT film, while the second one investigates the Post Metallization Annealing (PMA) done after deposition of electrode/PZT multilayer.The first part of the thesis presents the capacitance density analysis performed on Pt/Ru/PZT/Pt capacitors as a function of Pb excess in the sol-gel precursor solution (10, 15, 20 and 30% of excess Pb for PZT10, PZT15, PZT20 and PZT30, respectively). Pb excess compensates the lead evaporation during calcination.An increase of Pb excess from 10 to 20% leads to an increase of the maximum dielectric constant of 8.8%, a decrease of the loss tangent from 4.36 to 3.08% and breakdown field from 1.68 to 1.26MV/cm. PMA favors the enhancement of the maximum of dielectric constant by 7.5%, and the breakdown field increases to 0.5 MV/cm.The influence of the surface chemistry is studied as a function of Pb precursor excess. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that low level of Pb excess leads to the presence of a ZrOx surface phase in the form of nanostructures. Higher Pb precursor content allows the PZT synthesis to proceed to its end-point, fully consuming the ZrO2 precursor and eliminating the low dielectric constant ZrOx surface phase.We have then studied the Pt/Ru/PZT interface as a function of Pb excess and PMA. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) cross-sectional analysis shows that the crystalline ZrOx nanostructures are still present at the electrode interface, constituting a dielectric layer which contributes to defining capacitor performance. Operando (under bias in situ) hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) analysis using synchrotron radiation highlights an electronic response dependent on the applied polarization, most probably due to imperfect screening of the depolarizing field at the Pt/Ru/PZT10 interface. Furthermore, a new phase (PbOx) is observed at the Pt/Ru/PZT30 due to the high Pb excess. This new phase seems to induce a reduction in breakdown field and capacitance density. Finally, PMA on the Pt/Ru/PZT10 suggests the creation of interface ZrRuOx and PbRuOx which could be at the origin of the improvement of electrical responses of PZT capacitors after PMA.In conclusion, this thesis has provided valuable information and methodology on the correlation between surface and interface physical chemistry of PZT and Pt/Ru/PZT and electric characteristics of PZT based MIM capacitors.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 13, 2019 - 10:39:09 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, June 11, 2020 - 5:04:08 PM


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Ibrahima Gueye. Optimization of physical chemistry of the Pt/Ru/PbZrTiO3 interface for future high capacitance density devices. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAT119⟩. ⟨tel-02127036⟩



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