Rôle des homéoprotéines SIX dans les progéniteurs myogéniques au cours du développement musculaire

Abstract : SIX homeoproteins are encoded by the Sine oculis homeobox related genes Six1 to Six6 in vertebrates among which Six1, Six2, Six4 and Six5 are expressed in the muscle lineage. Whereas Six1 and Six4 are required for hypaxial myogenesis, double KO for those two genes (s1s4KO) still form their epaxial and craniofacial muscles. We further characterized the phenotype of compound Six mutant embryos and showed that the absence of Six1 and Six2 completely impairs craniofacial myogenesis and worsen muscle limb development observed in single Six1 mutants. We also showed that mouse fetuses devoid of SIX1, SIX2, SIX4 and SIX5 activity are still able to develop epaxial muscles, but that Pax7 expression in myogenic progenitors of these mutants is reduced and intermingled with Myogenin expression. While s1s4KO fetuses still develop epaxial muscles, their PAX7+ cells show a perturbed homing process into their niche, between the plasma membrane of a myofibre and the basal lamina surrounding it. Transcriptomic analysis, transplantation experiments and in vitro studies allowed us to conclude that the homing of PAX7+ cells into their niche during fetal myogenesis requires an adequate environment combining properties of the myofibers and the PAX7+ cells; environment disturbed in s1s4KO epaxial muscles. Transplantation experiments also led us to conclude that Six1 and Six4 are required for proper myofiber re-inervation after injury and for the establishment of the fast phenotype of myofibers. Furthermore, muscles transplanted with s1s4KO fetal PAX7+ cells after injury are formed of numerous and tiny myofibers. We could link this phenotype to the behavior of s1s4KO cells in vitro where they showed perturbed fusion. Finally, SIX homeoproteins require co-factors to induce their target genes expression, as EYA proteins encoded by Eya1 to Eya4 in vertebrates. Eya3 and Eya4 are strongly expressed in satellite cells during regeneration, cells in which Six1 is also required for proper muscle repair. We investigated muscle regeneration in absence of Eya3 expression and observed no obvious phenotype. We concluded that Eya3 is not required for muscle regeneration but that other Eya genes might compensate its function in KO mouse. To conclude, Six1 and Six2 are required for craniofacial myogenesis and Six1 and Six4 for hypaxial myogenesis and for the establishment of a proper environment allowing myofibre maturation and PAX7+ cells homing during fetal epaxial myogenesis and enabling myofibre growth and re-innervation after injury. The role of the collaboration between SIX and EYA proteins during myogenesis still needs more investigation.
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Maud Wurmser. Rôle des homéoprotéines SIX dans les progéniteurs myogéniques au cours du développement musculaire. Biologie cellulaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB053⟩. ⟨tel-02125318⟩

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