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Prise en compte de la variabilité spatio-temporelle des émissions d'ammoniac liées à la fertilisation azotée en France et développement de métamodèles prédictifs

Abstract : In a context of reducing the impacts of agricultural practices on human health andecosystems, it is necessary to better account for ammonia (NH3) volatilization in the inventories of NH3 emissions, the understanding of the nitrogen behavior after fertilization and the modeling of air quality.Given the considerable weight of nitrogen fertilizer (55%) in the total national NH3 emissions, nitrogen fertilization is an important lever for reducing NH3 emissions. Current national inventories are based on the use of default emission factors (EF) and suffer from a lack of fine spatial and temporal NH3 emissions descriptions making it difficult to develop effective emission reduction policies. Moreover, even if there are currently models that globally simulate the fate of nitrogen on the crop cycle, their do not always take into account the volatilization of NH3, and if it is, the volatilization modules are often very frustrating and have not been validated. There are models dedicated exclusively to the volatilization of NH3 in the field, but their requirements for data and input parameters and their calculation time limit their large-scale use (e.g, at national scale) in many geographical locations for several years as well as their integration into airquality prediction models or decision support or environmental assessment tools in terms of nitrogen fertilization.This thesis proposes new tools. The first tool, CADASTRE_NH3 makes it possible to describe and analyze the spatio-temporal variability of NH3 emissions from nitrogen fertilization. It combines the Volt'Air process-based model with geo-referenced databases on agro-soil-meteorological factors at the national level. This approach has demonstrated its ability to capture the spatio-temporal variability ofnitrogen use and resulting NH3 emissions, and to take into account the effect of soil and climate factor interactions on emissions. The comparison of CADASTRE_NH3 results with the official French inventories shows strong convergences regarding the quantities of nitrogen used and NH3 emissions in France for the year 2005-06, but also divergences especially for the case of organic waste products. Thesecond type of tool corresponds to meta-models derived from Volt'Air for predicting NH3 emission rates after nitrogen fertilizer applications. These meta-models have many practical advantages because of their simplicity and operability. They have promising potential uses to support decision-making in terms of fertilizer use conditions and also to support emission reduction policies through, for example, scenario testing.However, it would be interesting to compare the tools developed in this thesis with experimental data to evaluate their respective performance and validate all our approaches. It would also be interesting to develop dynamic meta-models of Volt'Air that can describe the dynamics of NH3 fluxes related to nitrogen fertilizer applications and to be integrated as simple modules of NH3 volatilization in agronomic and atmospheric models.
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Maharavo Ramanantenasoa. Prise en compte de la variabilité spatio-temporelle des émissions d'ammoniac liées à la fertilisation azotée en France et développement de métamodèles prédictifs. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLA027⟩. ⟨tel-02122587⟩

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