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Bases de pathogénicité de Cutibacterium acnes dans les infections sur matériel ostéo-articulaire : Corrélation entre le génotype et la réponse immune

Abstract : The aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the physiopathology of C. acnes orthopedic-device related infections (ODRI). Firstly, we typed by MLST 108 C. acnes isolates responsible for 34 cases of monomicrobial ODRIs and correlated typing results with bio-clinical data. We have shown that C. acnes ODRIs correspond to two clinical entities: i) "homotypic" cases corresponding to true infections with a single pathogenic clone of C. acnes eliciting an inflammatory response ii) heterotypic cases corresponding to colonization or iterative contamination of the implant without systemic inflammatory response. These typing data highlighted the limitations of the current microbiological definition of ODRI when it comes to C. acnes and the need to incorporate a reliable molecular tool into the routine microbiological diagnosis of these infections. We therefore evaluated the SLST technique developed for a rapid and optimal typing of C. acnes. The discriminating power of this technique was insufficient suggesting that only the establishment of real-time NGS in microbiology laboratories could improve the microbiological diagnosis. Our typing results showed that the clonal status of the infection and not CC is the main determining factor in the physiopathological and inflammatory process of C. acnes ODRI. This conclusion is consistent with our results obtained on an in vitro model of a macrophage THP-1 infection. Using this model, we have shown that the in vitro inflammatory response of our isolates is strain- and non-CC-dependent. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses were not correlated. This underscores the limitations of in vitro models in the study of C. acnes ODRIs in which the adaptation of the bacteria to the host is completely neglected during the study of the immune response. Finally, we confirmed the importance of the environment in the conditioning of the behavior of the bacterium. We conducted a comparative study of the ex vivo and ex vitro growth characteristics of our C.acnes isolates. We have shown the impact of CC and environmental conditions, by extension the pressure that can exert the host, on the cultural profile of C. acnes. In conclusion, our work shows that a multifactorial approach, integrating both genomics and host response, is needed to understand the physiopathology of C. acnes ODRI.
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Faten El Sayed. Bases de pathogénicité de Cutibacterium acnes dans les infections sur matériel ostéo-articulaire : Corrélation entre le génotype et la réponse immune. Bactériologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLV019⟩. ⟨tel-02121360⟩

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