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Les migrations secondaires des recrues de bivalves : approche éco-étho-physiologique

Abstract : Recruitment is a key process in the life-cycle of benthic marine invertebrates, and most of bivalve species. It includes the larval phase, the settlement and secondary dispersal mechanisms which lead to a gradual sedentary lifestyle until the recruits begin a strict benthic life. Although the larval phase and the settlement/metamorphosis stage are well studied, post-settlement migrations remain relatively unknown or at least underestimated. These migrations are the result of hydrodynamic processes modulated by eco-ethological responses in the benthic boundary layer that can radically change primary fixation patterns and have a major impact on the life cycle of a bivalve.This project proposed to study secondary migrations mechanisms of bivalve recruits by developing an eco-etho-physiological approach in order to answer three objectives: I) estimate the potential weight of the secondary migrations in coarse sediments habitats, ii) identify environmental factors, and more specifically those of the trophic environment in relation to hydrodynamics conditions, which control these processes, iii) evaluate the potential interactions between secondary migrations and recruits physiology.Firstly, we developed an in-situ study of secondary migrations of bivalve recruits in a coarse sediment habitat in the Chausey Archipelago (Normandy, France) by using recruit traps and monitoring environmental parameters (hydrological, hydrodynamic and trophic conditions). Then, we studied in experimental conditions post-settlement dispersal potential of different exploited bivalve species as well as the influence of physiology (in terms of energy reserves) on secondary migrations with a fall velocity tube, a benthic flume and by developing the larval and post-larval rearing of the warty venus, Venus verrucosa. Our results highlight the importance of secondary migrations of bivalve recruits in coarse sediment habitats with nearly 24 different taxa of bivalves identified in migration. Some of these post-settlement migrations would correspond to ontogenic change of habitat, and so coarse sediment habitats would constitute a nursery zone for several species. For the first time, this project demonstrates, at different levels, the role of physiology and trophic environment in the control of secondary migrations. We observed synchronization between a massive active secondary migration event with a change in the composition of the phytoplankton community and more particularly a bloom of nanoeukaryotes. This response of bivalve recruits to a ‘’trophic migration trigger’’ (TMT) could be due to the additional energy cost of active migration behaviors. Indeed, we highlighted, in experimental conditions, that the ability of recruits to control their dispersal by their behavior is directly correlated with their physiological profile. Recruits with the most energy reserves are the most able to increase their dispersal potential by their behavior. Also recruits would migrate when their main food source is available in the environment in order to support the cost of active secondary migration behaviors such as bysso-pelagic drift. In addition, post-fixation migration potential appears to be strongly related to the synchronicity between the settlement period and the tidal cycle (spring tide or neap tide), but also to post-settlement growth rates which depend on trophic conditions. Patterns of secondary migrations result from a close physico-biological coupling involving hydrodynamics factors but also eco-ethological responses modulated by physiological processes related to the trophic environment.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02119373, version 1

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Martin Forêt. Les migrations secondaires des recrues de bivalves : approche éco-étho-physiologique. Ecologie, Environnement. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS; Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0017⟩. ⟨tel-02119373⟩

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