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Rôle du médiateur et des cohésines dans la réparation des dommages oxydatifs de l'ADN

Abstract : Our laboratory focuses on the base excision repair (BER) mechanism that is responsible for the removal of damaged bases in DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generated spontaneously by the endogenous metabolism of the cells or induced exogenously by chemical or physical agents. Our aim is to understand how BER complexes are assembled in the context of the cell nucleus in response to genotoxic stress. We previously found that after treatments generating oxidized bases into cellular DNA BER complexes are assembled on the chromatin. In the case of the 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) mutagenic lesion, assembly of the BER complex depends on the recruitment to the chromatin of OGG1, the DNA glycosylase that recognizes and excises the lesion. Surprisingly, characterization of OGG1 mutants that are not able to recognize 8-oxoG showed that the recruitment of this initiator protein does not require the recognition of the damaged base. This suggests that there are other mechanisms that allow recruitment of the enzyme to chromatin and thus initiation of the repair of the 8-oxoG by the BER. We performed a high-throughput siRNA screen in human cells to identify proteins required for the recruitment of OGG1 to chromatin. Among the candidates issued from the screen, two groups of proteins were selected for further study: members of the mediator and cohesin complexes.In this project, we explored the role of these proteins in OGG1 relocalization after an oxidative stress. Our studies confirmed the requirement of essential proteins for OGG1 recruitment: cohesins subunits (SMC1, SMC3 and RAD21), mediator subunits including the central protein MED14, and CDK subunits (MED12, MED13, Cyclin C and CDK8). Requirement of all these proteins is independent of the cell cycle. Furthermore we show that recrutement of OGG1 is essential for its 8-oxoG repair function. Microscopy studies revealed recruitment and colocalization of two mediator subunits (MED12 and CDK8) with OGG1 on euchromatin domains after an oxidative stress. Finally, the association between OGG1 and its partners, specifically after an oxidative stress, was validated by FLIM-FRET microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation.To conclude, these results show for the first time a link between repair of oxidized bases and mediator and cohesin complexes, both of them being already involved in other DNA repair pathways. The identification of molecular mechanisms and new factors involved in the repair of oxidized bases may ultimately provide new elements for the management of diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Emilie Lebraud. Rôle du médiateur et des cohésines dans la réparation des dommages oxydatifs de l'ADN. Organisation et fonctions cellulaires [q-bio.SC]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS407⟩. ⟨tel-02117109⟩

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