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Effets combinés des dinoflagellés toxiques du genre Alexandrium et d'agents pathogènes sur la physiologie des bivalves

Abstract : Bivalve populations undergo regular epidemics that weaken or decimate exploited stocks and thus limit aquaculture. These diseases are caused mainly by viruses, bacteria or parasites, and occur primarily during spring and summer. This period of the year also provides favorable conditions for toxic dinoflagellate blooms, including species of the genus Alexandrium. Thus, the risk of Alexandrium sp. blooms and infectious diseases co-occurring in bivalves is high. However, these micro-algae synthesize and excrete toxins and cytotoxic compounds responsible for physiological changes in bivalves and could lead to an immuno-compromised status.The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the combined effects on bivalve physiology of exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium sp., and infection by pathogens, through the study of different bivalve - pathogen - Alexandrium sp. tripartite interactions. The results of this work highlight the species-specific nature of these impacts.Thus, exposure to Alexandrium catenella reduces the herpesviruses infection in oyster Crassostrea gigas, whereas the dinoflagellate A. fundyense increases the susceptibility of C. virginica oyster to the parasite Perkinsus marinus, probably via immuno-suppression, as suggested by the partial inhibition of hemocyte responses. Additionally, the effect of a toxic algal bloom on oyster susceptibility to opportunistic diseases when exposed to a new microbial environment (simulating a transfer) was evaluated. Hemocyte responses to a changing microbial environment were suppressed by exposure to A. catenella, although no new bacterial infection was detected.Finally, exposure to pathogens or to a new microbial environment interferes with the processes by which oysters exposed to A. catenella accumulate algal toxins, illustrating the complexity of these interactions. These results provide a better understanding of the involvement of toxic algal blooms in the development of diseases affecting commercial bivalve species, but also of the involvement of the bivalve biotic environment in the accumulation of regulated toxins.
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Malwenn Lassudrie. Effets combinés des dinoflagellés toxiques du genre Alexandrium et d'agents pathogènes sur la physiologie des bivalves. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0113⟩. ⟨tel-02115207⟩

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