Paléoenvironnements holocènes du plateau du Béage (massif du Mézenc, Massif Central, France). Les variations climatiques et les activités anthropiques révélées par l'étude des macro-restes dans les sédiments tourbeux et la gyttja

Abstract : This PhD thesis has resulted in the reconstruction of the holocene environmental history of the Béage plateau in Ardèche (massif du Mézenc, Massif Central, France). It focussed on the study of organic sediments from the La Narce du Béage and Pialeloup peatlands. Two complementary sites were also considered: the Pré-du-Bois swamp and the alluvial stratigraphies from the middle Gage valley. Our approach aimed (1) to perform a palaeoecological study of these sites (macrofossils and palynology); (2) to better understand watershed evolution thanks to multi-proxies analyses (magnetic susceptibility, grain size, organic matter content, geochemistry); (3) to compare these results with other local to regional data. During the Barly and the Middle Holocene, local humidity variations occuned concurrently with rapid climate changes(RCCs) recorded in the Northern Hemisphere (dry episodes: 10,900-10,500; 9,900-9,600; moist: 10,400-10,000;9,600-9,100; 7,900-7,400; 6,400-6,000 and 5,400-5,000 cal. BP; contrasted: 8,500-8,150 cal. BP). This study also allowed to identify agro-pastoral impacts around 6,900-6,450 cal. BP (Barly Neolithic), around 5, 700-5,000 cal. BP (Middle to Recent Neolithic) and close to 4,800-4,100 cal. BP (Final Neolithic). Anthropogenic impact got stronger between 2,400 and 1,250 cal. BP (IV'h century BC-Vlth century AD). A new stage of landscape management was recorded after 1,050 cal. BP (Xth century AD), involving rye cultivation, extensive livestock grazing(sheep and cattle) and fruit tree farming (walnut and chestnut: XIIIth-XIV'h centuries). Severe soil erosion occurred, alsodriven by the Little Ice Age deterioration (from the XIIlth to the XVth century AD). Finally, during the X!Xth and theXXth centuries cattle grazing remained strong, but cultivation ended due to demographic exodus during the xxth century.
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André-Marie Dendievel. Paléoenvironnements holocènes du plateau du Béage (massif du Mézenc, Massif Central, France). Les variations climatiques et les activités anthropiques révélées par l'étude des macro-restes dans les sédiments tourbeux et la gyttja. Géographie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSES004⟩. ⟨tel-02115113⟩

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