Exploration du rôle des différents domaines C2 de l'otoferline et des isoformes des canaux calciques CaV1.3 dans la transmission synaptique des cellules ciliées auditives

Abstract : The precise encoding of acoustic signals into nerve impulses is achieved at the ribbon synapses of inner hair cells (IHC) of the cochlea. Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles by IHC is triggered by voltage-activation of Cav1.3 calcium channels and the action of a specific calcium sensor, otoferlin, a large protein with a single C-terminal transmembrane domain and six C2 (A-F) domains which binds Ca2+ and interacts with phospholipids. In order to characterize the function of the various otoferlin C2 domains, we used viral vectors (AAV) allowing the expression of shortened forms of otoferlin (mini-Otof), in vivo, in IHC from mice lacking otoferlin (Otof -/-). We show that mini-Otof containing C2-EF, C2-DEF or C2-ACEF domains are sufficient to restore fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis in Otof -/- IHC, but without restoring hearing because vesicular replenishment remains impaired. For the first time, we also uncover an ultra-fast endocytosis (t < 20 ms) dynamin- and otoferlin-dependant, a function that is certainly essential for a fast regulation of IHC membrane homeostasis. Furthermore, the expression of the mini-Otof C2-EF and C2-DEF also partially restored the fast component of the Ca2+ current inactivation in Otof -/- IHC. This rapid inactivation is carried out by Cav1.3S short isoforms which have a truncated C-terminal regulatory domain, unlike Cav1.3L long isoforms which display no inactivation. To characterize the specific role of these Cav1.3 isoforms, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technology, allowing a specific removal of the C-terminal regulatory part of the Cav1.3L channels in IHC. Our results show that CRSIPR- Cav1.3L mice display severe deafness explained at the IHC level by a defect in vesicular replenishment of the active zones, while Cav1.3S are sufficient to ensure fast and transient exocytosis of docked synaptic vesicles.
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Margot Tertrais. Exploration du rôle des différents domaines C2 de l'otoferline et des isoformes des canaux calciques CaV1.3 dans la transmission synaptique des cellules ciliées auditives. Neurosciences. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0435⟩. ⟨tel-02111896⟩

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