Au coeur du contrôle de l’immunité humorale : (re)définition, mode d’action et répertoire des lymphocytes T folliculaires régulateurs

Abstract : The immune humoral response offers the organism an efficient protection through the production of antibodies following an immune stimulation. Follicular regulatory T cell (Tfr) is an essential subset in the control of humoral immunity. These cells share with conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells regulatory functions and should play a major role in the control of antibody production following stimulation. As T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help is essential in the differentiation of B cell into antibody-producing plasma cells, one of the possible mechanisms of Tfr’s control could be the limitation of the Tfh cells’ help to the B cells. As a consequence of the non-response of Tfr cells to interleukin (IL)-2, we thoroughly revealed the CD25- phenotype of Tfr cells thus redefining the subset. This stringently-selected population allowed a fine-tuned characterization of Tfr cells and the discovery of an IL-1β axis regulating the germinal center responses. The dual regulation of T cells in secondary lymphoid organs, one between Treg and Teff cells regulated by IL-2 outside germinal centers and the other between Tfh and Tfr cells regulated by IL-1 inside GCs brought us to question the origin and specificity of Tfr cells. We partially answered this with a high-resolution analysis of these populations’ repertoires. We highlighted a similarity in the distributions and global characteristics of the follicular cells’ repertoires regardless their regulatory (Tfr) or not (Tfh) phenotype. We also brought out the major sharing between Treg and Tfr repertoires underpinning the hypothesis of a common origin for these populations. This work has disclosed important aspects of Tfr cells’ biology, a fundamental subset in the control of humoral immune responses. It opens many perspectives including the control of antibody production, negatively in the context of autoimmune diseases or its positive exploitation to enhance vaccine efficacy
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Paul-Gydéon Ritvo. Au coeur du contrôle de l’immunité humorale : (re)définition, mode d’action et répertoire des lymphocytes T folliculaires régulateurs. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB025⟩. ⟨tel-02111720⟩

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